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Quarterly report [Sections 13 or 15(d)]

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10 ‑Q

☒ QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

or

☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _______________ to _______________

WHITING PETROLEUM CORPORATION

(Exact name of R egistrant as specified in its charter)



Delaware

20 ‑0098515

(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)



1700 Broadway, Suite 2300
Denver, Colorado

80290 ‑2300

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip code)

Indicate by check mark whether the R egistrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the R egistrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the R egistrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the R egistrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the R egistrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions o f “large accelerated filer ” , “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ☒

Accelerated filer ☐

Non-accelerated filer ☐

Smaller reporting company ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒

Number of shares of the R egistrant’s common stock outstanding at April 15 , 201 6 : 204,385,177 shares .





TABLE OF CONTENTS

 Glossary of Certain Definitions

1



PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 Item 1.

Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

4



Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31 , 201 6 and December 31, 201 5

4



Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three Months Ended March 31 , 201 6 and 201 5

5



Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31 , 201 6 and 201 5

6



Consolidated Statements of Equity for the Three Months Ended March 31 , 201 6 and 201 5

8



Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

9

 Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

24

 Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure s a bout Market Risk

36

 Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

38



PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

 Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

39

 Item 1A.

Risk Factors

39

 Item 6.

Exhibits

39

Glossary of Certain Definitions

Unless the context ot herwise requires, the terms “we ” , “us ” , “our” or “ours” when used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q refer to Whiting Petroleum Corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries. When the context requires, we refer to these entities separately.

We have included below the definitions for certain terms used in this r eport :

“Bbl” One stock tank barrel, or 42 U.S. gallons liquid volume, used in this report in reference to oil, NGLs and other liquid hydrocarbons.

“Bcf” One billion cubic feet, used in reference to natural gas or CO 2 .

“BOE” One stock tank barrel of oil equivalent, computed on an approximate energy equivalent basis that one Bbl of crude oil equals six Mcf of natural gas and one Bbl of crude oil equals one Bbl of natural gas liquids.

“CO 2 ” Carbon dioxide.

“CO 2 flood” A tertiary recovery method in which CO 2 is injected into a reservoir to enhance hydrocarbon recovery.

“completion” The installation of permanent equipment for the production of crude oil or natural gas.

“costless collar” An option position where the proceeds from the sale of a call option at its inception fund the purchase of a put option at its inception.

“deterministic method” The method of estimating reserves or resources using a single value for each parameter (from the geoscience, engineering or economic data) in the reserves calculation.

“development well ” A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or natural gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.

“differential” The difference between a benchmark price of oil and natural gas, such as the NYMEX crude oil spot price , and the wellhead price received.

“dry hole” A well found to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well.

“EOR” Enhanced oil recovery.

“exploratory well” A well drilled to find a new field or to find a new reservoir in a field previously found to be productive of oil or natural gas in another reservoir.

“FASB” Financial Accounting Standards Board.

“FASB ASC” The Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification.

“field” An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on or related to the same individual geological structural feature and/or stratigraphic condition. There may be two or more reservoirs in a field that are separated vertically by intervening impervious strata, or laterally by local geologic barriers, or both. Reservoirs that are associated by being in overlapping or adjacent fields may be treated as a single or common operational field. The geological terms “structural feature” and “stratigraphic condition” are intended to identify localized geological features as opposed to the broader terms of basins, trends, provinces, plays, areas of interest, etc.

“GAAP” Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America.

“gross acres ” or “gross wells” The total acres or wells, as the case may be, in which a working interest is owned.

“ISDA” I nternational Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc.

“lease operating expense” or “LOE” The expenses of lifting oil or gas from a producing formation to the surface, constituting part of the current operating expenses of a working interest, and also including labor, superintendence, supplies, repairs, short-lived assets,

maintenance, allocated overhead costs and other expenses incidental to production, but not including lease acquisition or drilling or completion expenses.

“LIBOR” London interbank offered rate.

“MBbl” One thousand barrels of oil , NGLs or other liquid hydrocarbons.

“MBOE” One thousand BOE.

“MBOE/d” One MBOE per day.

“Mcf” One thousand cubic feet, used in reference to natural gas or CO 2 .

“MMBbl” One million Bbl.

“MMBOE” One million BOE.

“MMcf” One million cubic feet, used in reference to natural gas or CO 2 .

“MMcf/d” One MMcf per day.

“net acres” or “net wells” The sum of the fractional working interests owned in gross acres or wells, as the case may be .

“net production” The total production attributable to our fractional working interest owned.

“NGL” Natural gas liquid.

“NYMEX” The New York Mercantile Exchange.

“plug-and-perf technology” A horizontal well completion technique in which hydraulic fractures are performed in multiple stages, with each stage utilizing a bridge plug to divert fracture stimulation fluids through the casing perforations in to the formation within that stage.

“p lugging and abandonment” Refers to the sealing off of fluids in the strata penetrated by a well so that the fluids from one stratum will not escape into another or to the surface. Regulations of most states require plugging of abandoned wells.

“prospect” A property on which indications of oil or gas have been identified based on available seismic and geological information.

“proved developed reserves” Proved reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well.

“proved reser ves” Those reserves which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible—from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under existing economic conditions, operating methods and government regulations—prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. The project to extract the hydrocarbons must have commenced, or the operator must be reasonably certain that it will commence the project, within a reasonable time.

The area of the reservoir considered as proved includes all of the following:

a.

The area identified by drilling and limited by fluid contacts, if any, and

b.

Adjacent undrilled portions of the reservoir that can, with reasonable certainty, be judged to be continuous with it and to contain economically producible oil or gas on the basis of available geoscience and engineering data.

Reserves that can be produced economically through application of improved recovery techniques (including, but not limited to, fluid injection) are included in the proved classification when both of the following occur:

a.

Successful testing by a pilot project in an area of the reservoir with properties no more favorable than in the reservoir as a whole, the operation of an installed program in the reservoir or an analogous reservoir, or other evidence using reliable technology establishes the reasonable certainty of the engineering analysis on which the project or program was based, and

b.

The project has been approved for development by all necessary parties and entities, including governmental entities.

Existing economic conditions include prices and costs at which economic producibility from a reservoir is to be determined. The price shall be the average price during the 12-month period before the ending date of the period covered by the report, determined as an unweighted arithmetic average of the first-day-of-the-month price for each month within such period, unless prices are defined by contractual arrangements, excluding escalations based upon future conditions.

“reasonable certainty” If deterministic methods are used, reasonable certainty means a high degree of confidence that the quantities will be recovered. If probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 90 percent probability that the quantities actually recovered will equal or exceed the estimate. A high degree of confidence exists if the quantity is much more likely to be achieved than not, and, as changes due to increased availability of geoscience (geological, geophysical and geochemical) engineering, and economic data are made to estimated ultimate recovery with time, reasonably certain estimated ultimate recovery is much more likely to increase or remain constant than to decrease.

“reserves” Estimated remaining quantities of oil and gas and related substances anticipated to be economically producible, as of a given date, by application of development projects to known accumulations. In addition, there must exist, or there must be a reasonable expectati on that there will exist, the legal right to produce or a revenue interest in the production, installed means of delivering oil and gas or related substances to market, and all permits and financing required to implement the project.

“reservoir” A porous and permeable underground formation containing a natural accumulation of producible crude oil and/or natural gas that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is individual and separate from other reservoirs.

“royalty” The amount or fee paid to the owner of mineral rights, expressed as a percentage or fraction of gross income from crude oil or natural gas produced and sold, unencumbered by expenses relating to the drilling, completing or operating of the affected well.

“SEC” The United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

“working interest” The interest in a crude oil and natural gas property (normally a leasehold interest) that gives the owner the right to drill, produce and conduct operations on the property and to a share of production, subject to all royalties, overriding royalties and other burdens and to all costs of exploration, development and operations and all risks in connection therewith.

“workover” Operations on a producing well to restore or increase production.

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1 . Consolidated Financial Statements

WHITIN G PETROLEUM CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS ( unaudited)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)







March 31,

December 31,



2016

2015

ASSETS

Current assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

1,061

$

16,053

Accounts receivable trade, net

261,728 332,428

Derivative assets

127,794 158,729

Prepaid expenses and other

28,923 27,980

Total current assets

419,506 535,190

Property and equipment:

Oil and gas properties, successful efforts method

14,128,284 13,904,525

Other property and equipment

165,686 168,277

Total property and equipment

14,293,970 14,072,802

Less accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization

(3,625,294) (3,323,102)

Total property and equipment, net

10,668,676 10,749,700

Other long-term assets

93,055 104,195

TOTAL ASSETS

$

11,181,237

$

11,389,085

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY

Current liabilities:

Accounts payable trade

$

77,170

$

77,276

Accrued capital expenditures

79,356 94,105

Revenues and royalties payable

124,133 179,601

Accrued interest

51,528 62,661

Accrued lease operating expenses

47,596 55,291

Accrued liabilities and other

60,708 50,261

Taxes payable

41,925 47,789

Accrued employee compensation and benefits

8,766 32,829

Total current liabilities

491,182 599,813

Long-term debt

5,334,595 5,197,704

Deferred income taxes

528,624 593,792

Asset retirement obligations

153,019 155,550

Deferred gain on sale

44,963 48,974

Other long-term liabilities

36,154 34,664

Total liabilities

6,588,537 6,630,497

Commitments and contingencies

Equity:

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 300,000,000 shares authorized; 209,701,542 issued and 204,385,177 outstanding as of March 31, 2016 and 206,441,303 issued and 204,147,647 outstanding as of December 31, 2015

210 206

Additional paid-in capital

4,665,734 4,659,868

Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)

(81,218) 90,530

Total Whiting shareholders' equity

4,584,726 4,750,604

Noncontrolling interest

7,974 7,984

Total equity

4,592,700 4,758,588

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY

$

11,181,237

$

11,389,085



See notes to consolidated financial statements.

WHITING PETROLEUM CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS ( unaudited)

(in thousands, except per share data)







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

REVENUES AND OTHER INCOME:

Oil, NGL and natural gas sales

$

289,697

$

519,848

Gain (loss) on sale of properties

(1,934) 3,198

Amortization of deferred gain on sale

3,849 5,836

Interest income and other

395 350

Total revenues and other income

292,007 529,232

COSTS AND EXPENSES:

Lease operating expenses

114,376 166,365

Production taxes

25,927 44,378

Depreciation, depletion and amortization

312,292 283,519

Exploration and impairment

35,491 80,924

General and administrative

44,796 43,980

Interest expense

81,907 74,257

(Gain) loss on extinguishment of debt

(90,619) 5,589

Derivative (gain) loss, net

4,761 (9,851)

Total costs and expenses

528,931 689,161

LOSS BEFORE INCOME TAXES

(236,924) (159,929)

INCOME TAX EXPENSE (BENEFIT):

Current

3 149

Deferred

(65,169) (53,950)

Total income tax benefit

(65,166) (53,801)

NET LOSS

(171,758) (106,128)

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

10 17

NET LOSS AVAILABLE TO COMMON SHAREHOLDERS

$

(171,748)

$

(106,111)

LOSS PER COMMON SHARE:

Basic

$

(0.84)

$

(0.63)

Diluted

$

(0.84)

$

(0.63)

WEIGHTED AVERAGE SHARES OUTSTANDING:

Basic

204,367 168,990

Diluted

204,367 168,990



See notes to consolidated financial statements.

WHITING PETROLEUM CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS ( unaudited)

(in thousands)







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

Net loss

$

(171,758)

$

(106,128)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:

Depreciation, depletion and amortization

312,292 283,519

Deferred income tax benefit

(65,169) (53,950)

Amortization of debt issuance costs, debt discount and debt premium

21,369 1,999

Stock-based compensation

6,544 6,655

Amortization of deferred gain on sale

(3,849) (5,836)

(Gain) loss on sale of properties

1,934 (3,198)

Undeveloped leasehold and oil and gas property impairments

14,972 26,417

Exploratory dry hole costs

-

541

(Gain) loss on extinguishment of debt

(90,619) 5,589

Non-cash portion of derivative loss

59,923 40,719

Other, net

(3,865) (1,040)

Changes in current assets and liabilities:

Accounts receivable trade, net

70,700 38,045

Prepaid expenses and other

(1,135) 44,527

Accounts payable trade and accrued liabilities

(44,059) (19,316)

Revenues and royalties payable

(55,468) (46,982)

Taxes payable

(5,864) (9,422)

Net cash provided by operating activities

45,948 202,139

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

Drilling and development capital expenditures

(260,739) (1,015,974)

Acquisition of oil and gas properties

(403) (11,046)

Other property and equipment

(2,066) (4,909)

Proceeds from sale of oil and gas properties

2,945 10,319

Net cash used in investing activities

(260,263) (1,021,610)

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

Issuance of common stock

-

1,050,000

Issuance of 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2020

-

1,250,000

Issuance of 6.25% Senior Notes due 2023

-

750,000

Partial redemption of 8.125% Senior Notes due 2019

-

(2,475)

Partial redemption of 5.5% Senior Notes due 2022

-

(349,557)

Partial redemption of 5.5% Senior Notes due 2021

-

(403,384)

Borrowings under credit agreement

400,000 1,600,000

Repayments of borrowings under credit agreement

(200,000) (3,000,000)

Debt and equity issuance costs

(3) (49,162)

Proceeds from stock options exercised

-

2,919

Restricted stock used for tax withholdings

(674) (1,055)

Net cash provided by financing activities

$

199,323

$

847,286



See notes to consolidated financial statements.

(Continued)

WHITING PETROLEUM CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS ( unaudited)

(in thousands)







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

NET CHANGE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

$

(14,992)

$

27,815

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS:

Beginning of period

16,053 78,100

End of period

$

1,061

$

105,915

NONCASH INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

Accrued capital expenditures related to property additions

$

79,356

$

198,717

NONCASH FINANCING ACTIVITIES (1)



See notes to consolidated financial statements.

(Concluded)

(1)

Refer to the “Long-Term Debt” footnote in the notes to consolidated financial statements for a discussion of the Company’s exchange of senior notes and senior subordinated notes for convertible notes.

WHITING PETROLEUM CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY ( unaudited)

(in thousands)







Retained

Total



Additional

Earnings

Whiting



Common Stock

Paid-in

(Accumulated

Shareholders'

Noncontrolling

Total



Shares

Amount

Capital

Deficit)

Equity

Interest

Equity

BALANCES-January 1, 2015

168,346

$

168

$

3,385,094

$

2,309,712

$

5,694,974

$

8,070

$

5,703,044

Net loss

-

-

-

(106,111) (106,111) (17) (106,128)

Issuance of common stock

35,000 35 1,039,465

-

1,039,500

-

1,039,500

Equity component of 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2020, net

-

-

144,755

-

144,755

-

144,755

Exercise of stock options

145

-

2,919

-

2,919

-

2,919

Restricted stock issued

1,175 1 (1)

-

-

-

-

Restricted stock forfeited

(142)

-

-

-

-

-

-

Restricted stock used for tax withholdings

(37)

-

(1,055)

-

(1,055)

-

(1,055)

Stock-based compensation

-

-

6,655

-

6,655

-

6,655

BALANCES-March 31, 2015

204,487

$

204

$

4,577,832

$

2,203,601

$

6,781,637

$

8,053

$

6,789,690



BALANCES-January 1, 2016

206,441

$

206

$

4,659,868

$

90,530

$

4,750,604

$

7,984

$

4,758,588

Net loss

-

-

-

(171,748) (171,748) (10) (171,758)

Restricted stock issued

3,918 4 (4)

-

-

-

-

Restricted stock forfeited

(570)

-

-

-

-

-

-

Restricted stock used for tax withholdings

(87)

-

(674)

-

(674)

-

(674)

Stock-based compensation

-

-

6,544

-

6,544

-

6,544

BALANCES-March 31, 2016

209,702

$

210

$

4,665,734

$

(81,218)

$

4,584,726

$

7,974

$

4,592,700



See notes to consolidated financial statements.

WHITING PETROLEUM CORPORATION

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(unaudited)

1. BASIS OF PRESENTATION

Description of Operations —Whiting Petroleum Corporation, a Delaware corporation, is an independent oil and gas company engaged in the development, acquisition , exploration and production of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas primarily in the Rocky Mountains and Permian Basin regions of the United States. Unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires, all references in these notes to “Whiting” or the “Company” are to Whiting Petroleum Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries , Whiting Oil and Gas Corporation (“Whiting Oil and Gas”), Whiting US Holding Company, Whiting Canadian Holding Company ULC (formerly Kodiak Oil & Gas Corp., “Kodiak”), Whiting Resources Corporation (formerly Kodiak Oil & Gas (USA) Inc.) and Whiting Programs, Inc .

Consolidated Financial Statements —The unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Whiting Petroleum Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries . Investments in entities which give Whiting significant influence, but not control, over the investee are accounted for using the equity method. Under the equity method, investments are stated at cost plus the Company’s equity in undistributed earnings and losses. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation. These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP and the SEC rules and regulations for interim financial reporting. In the opinion of management, the accompanying financial statements include all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals and adjustments) necessary to present fairly, in all material respects, the Company’s interim results. However, operating results for the periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year. The consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with Whiting’s consolidated financial statements and related note s included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2015 . Except as disclosed herein, there have been no material changes to the information disclosed in the notes to consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s 201 5 Annual Report on Form 10 ‑K.

Earnings Per Share —Basic earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net income available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Diluted earnings per common share is calculated by dividing adjusted net income available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of diluted common shares outstanding, which includes the effect of potentially dilutive securities. Potentially dilutive securities for the diluted earnings per share calculations consist of convertible debt to be settled in shares only , using the if-converted method , as well as unvested restricted stock awards , outstanding stock options and contingently issuable shares of convertible debt to be settled in cash , all using the treasury stock method . When a loss from continuing operations exists, all dilutive securities and potentially dilutive securities are anti-dilutive and are therefore excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share.

2. OIL AND GAS PROPERTIES

Net capitalized costs related to the Company’s oil and gas producing activities at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 are as follows (in thousands):







March 31,

December 31,



2016

2015

Proved leasehold costs

$

3,261,900

$

3,206,237

Unproved leasehold costs

619,548 689,754

Costs of completed wells and facilities

9,681,960 9,503,020

Wells and facilities in progress

564,876 505,514

Total oil and gas properties, successful efforts method

14,128,284 13,904,525

Accumulated depletion

(3,579,224) (3,279,156)

Oil and gas properties, net

$

10,549,060

$

10,625,369

3. ACQUISITIONS AND DIVESTITURES

2016 Acquisitions and Divestitures

There were no significant acquisitions or divestitures during the three months ended March 31, 2016.

2015 Acquisitions and Divestitures

In December 2015, the Company completed the sale of a fresh water delivery system, a produced water gathering system and four saltwater disposal wells located in Weld County, Colorado, effective December 16, 2015, for aggregate sales proceeds of $75 million (before closing adjustments).

In June 2015, the Company completed the sale of its interests in certain non-core oil and gas wells, effective June 1, 2015, for aggregate sales proceeds of $150 million (before closing adjustments) resulting in a pre-tax loss on sale of $118 million. The properties included over 2,000 gross wells in 132 fields across 10 states.

In April 2015, the Company completed the sale of its interests in certain non-core oil and gas wells, effective May 1, 2015, for aggregate sales proceeds of $108 million (before closing adjustments) resulting in a pre-tax gain on sale of $29 million. The properties are located in 187 fields across 14 states, and predominately consist of assets that were previously included in the underlying properties of Whiting USA Trust I.

Also during the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company completed several immaterial divestiture transactions for the sale of its interests in certain non-core oil and gas wells and undeveloped acreage, for aggregate sales proceeds of $176 million (before closing adjustments) resulting in a pre-tax gain on sale of $28 million.

There were no significant acquisitions during the year ended December 31, 2015.

4 . LONG-TERM DEBT

Long-term debt consisted of the following at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 (in thousands):







March 31,

December 31,



2016

2015

Credit agreement

$

1,000,000

$

800,000

6.5% Senior Subordinated Notes due 2018

301,288 350,000

6.5% Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes due 2018

48,712

-

5% Senior Notes due 2019

1,003,188 1,100,000

5% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019

96,812

-

1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2020

1,250,000 1,250,000

5.75% Senior Notes due 2021

1,047,523 1,200,000

5.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2021

152,477

-

6.25% Senior Notes due 2023

571,258 750,000

6.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2023

178,742

-

Total principal

5,650,000 5,450,000

Unamortized debt discounts and premiums

(377,168) (203,082)

Unamortized debt issuance costs on notes

(49,627) (49,214)

Fair value of embedded derivatives associated with convertible notes

111,390

-

Total long-term debt

$

5,334,595

$

5,197,704

Credit Agreement —Whiting Oil and Gas, the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, has a credit agreement with a syndicate of banks that as of March 31, 2016 had a borrowing base of $4.0 billion, with aggregate commitments of $2.5 billion. On March 25, 2016, the Company entered into an amendment to its existing credit agreement and related guaranty and collateral agreement in connection with the May 1, 2016 regular borrowing base redetermination that, among other things, (i) decreased the borrowing base under the facility from $4.0 billion to $2.75 billion, effective May 1, 2016, (ii) reduced the aggregate commitments under the credit agreement from $3.5 billion to $2.5 billion, (iii) reduced the maximum letter of credit commitment amount from $100 million to $50 million, (iv) increased the applicable margin based on the borrowing base utilization percentage by 50 basis points per annum, (v) increased the commitment fee to 50 basis points per annum, (vi) permits the Company and certain of its subsidiaries to issue second lien indebtedness up to $1.0 billion subject to various conditions and limitations, (vii) increased the permitted ratio of total senior secured

debt to the last four quarters’ EBITDAX (as defined in the credit agreement) from less than 2.5 to 1.0 to less than 3.0 to 1.0 during the Interim Covenant Period, as defined below, and (viii) permits the Company and certain of its subsidiaries to dispose of their respective ownership interests in certain gas gathering and processing plants located in North Dakota without reducing the borrowing base. As of March 31, 2016 , the Company had $1.5 billion of available borrowing capacity, which was net of $1.0 billion in borrowings and $2 million in letters of credit outstanding.

The borrowing base under the credit agreement is determined at the discretion of the lenders, based on the collateral value of the Company’s proved reserves that have been mortgaged to such lenders, and is subject to regular redeterminations on May 1 and November 1 of each year, as well as special redeterminations described in the credit agreement, in each case which may reduce the amount of the borrowing base. Upon a redetermination of the borrowing base, either on a periodic or special redetermination date, if borrowings in excess of the revised borrowing capacity were outstanding, the Company could be forced to immediately repay a portion of its debt outstanding under the credit agreement.

A portion of the revolving credit facility in an aggregate amount not to exceed $50 million may be used to issue letters of credit for the account of Whiting Oil and Gas or other designated subsidiaries of the Company. As of March 31, 2016 , $48 million was available for additional letters of credit under the agreement.

The credit agreement provides for interest only payments until December 2019, when the credit agreement expires and all outstanding borrowings are due. Interest under the revolving credit facility accrues at the Company’s option at either (i) a base rate for a base rate loan plus the margin in the table below, where the base rate is defined as the greatest of the prime rate, the federal funds rate plus 0.5% per annum, or an adjusted LIBOR rate plus 1.0% per annum, or (ii) an adjusted LIBOR rate for a Eurodollar loan plus the margin in the table below. Additionally, the Company also incurs commitment fees as set forth in the table below on the unused portion of the aggregate commitments of the lenders under the revolving credit facility, which are included as a component of interest expense. At March 31, 201 6 , the weighted average interest rate on the outstanding principal balance under the credit agreement was 2.7% .







Applicable

Applicable



Margin for Base

Margin for

Commitment

Ratio of Outstanding Borrowings to Borrowing Base

Rate Loans

Eurodollar Loans

Fee

Less than 0.25 to 1.0

1.00%

2.00%

0.50%

Greater than or equal to 0.25 to 1.0 but less than 0.50 to 1.0

1.25%

2.25%

0.50%

Greater than or equal to 0.50 to 1.0 but less than 0.75 to 1.0

1.50%

2.50%

0.50%

Greater than or equal to 0.75 to 1.0 but less than 0.90 to 1.0

1.75%

2.75%

0.50%

Greater than or equal to 0.90 to 1.0

2.00%

3.00%

0.50%

The credit agreement contains restrictive covenants that may limit the Company’s ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, sell assets, make loans to others, make investments, enter into mergers, enter into hedging contracts, incur liens and engage in certain other transactions without the prior consent of its lenders. Except for limited exceptions, the credit agreement also restricts the Company’s ability to make any dividend payments or distributions on its common stock. These restrictions apply to all of the Company’s restricted subsidiaries (as defined in the credit agreement) . As of March 31, 2016 , there were no retained earnings free from restrictions. The amended credit agreement requires the Company, as of the last day of any quarter, to maintain the following ratios (as defined in the credit agreement): (i) a consolidated current assets to consolidated current liabilities ratio (which includes an add back of the available borrowing capacity under the credit agreement) of not less than 1.0 to 1.0, (ii) a total senior secured debt to the last four quarters’ EBITDAX ratio of less than 3.0 to 1.0 during the Interim Covenant Period (defined below), and thereafter a total debt to EBITDAX ratio of less than 4.0 to 1.0 , and (iii) a ratio of the last four quarters’ EBITDAX to consolidated interest charges of not less than 2.25 to 1.0 during the Interim Covenant Period. Under the credit agreement, the “Interim Covenant Period” is defined as the period from June 30, 2015 until the earlier of (a) April 1, 2018 or (b) the commencement of an investment-grade debt rating period (as defined in the credit agreement) . The Company was in compliance with its covenants under the credit agreement as of March 31, 2016 .

The obligations of Whiting Oil and Gas under the credit agreement are secured by a first lien on substantially all of Whiting Oil and Gas’ and Whiting Resource Corporation’s properties. The Company has guaranteed the obligations of Whiting Oil and Gas under the credit agreement and has pledged the stock of its subsidiaries as security for its guarantee.

Senior Notes and Senior Subordinated Notes —In September 2010, the Company issued at par $350 million of 6.5% Senior Subordinated Notes due October 2018 (the “2018 Senior Subordinated Notes”).

In September 2013, the Company issued at par $1.1 billion of 5% Senior Notes due March 2019 (the “2019 Senior Notes”) and $800 million of 5.75% Senior Notes due March 2021, and issued at 101% of par an additional $400 million of 5.75% Senior Notes due March 2021 (collectively, the “2021 Senior Notes”). The debt premium recorded in connection with the issuance of the 2021 Senior

Notes is amortized to interest expense over the term of the notes using the effective interest method, with an effective interest rate of 5.5% per annum.

In March 2015, the Company issued at par $750 million of 6.25% Senior Notes due April 2023 (the “2023 Senior Notes” and together with the 2019 Senior Notes and 2021 Senior Notes, the “Whiting Senior Notes”).

Kodiak Senior Notes. In conjunction with the acquisition of Kodiak Oil & Gas Corp. (the “Kodiak Acquisition”) in December 2014 , Whiting US Holding Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, became a co-issuer of Kodiak’s $800 million of 8.125% Senior Notes due December 2019 (the “2019 Kodiak Notes”), $350 million of 5.5% Senior Notes due January 2021 (the “2021 Kodiak Notes”), and $400 million of 5.5% Senior Notes due February 2022 (the “2022 Kodiak Notes” and together with the 2019 Kodiak Notes and the 2021 Kodiak Notes, the “Kodiak Notes”).

I n January 2015, Whiting offered to repurchase at 101% of par all $1,550 million principal amount of Kodiak Notes then outstanding. I n March 2015, Whiting paid $760 million to repurchase $2 million aggregate principal amount of the 2019 Kodiak Notes, $346 million aggregate principal amount of the 2021 Kodiak Notes and $399 million aggregate principal amount of the 2022 Kodiak Notes, which payment consisted of the 101% redemption price and all accrued and unpaid interest on such notes. I n May 2015, Whiting paid an additional $5 million to repurchase the remaining $4 million aggregate principal amount of the 2021 Kodiak Notes and $1 million aggregate principal amount of the 2022 Kodiak Notes, which payment consisted of the 101% redemption price and all accrued and unpaid interest on such notes. The Company financed the repurchases with borrowings under its revolving credit facility , which borrowings were subsequently repaid with proceeds from the equity offerings discussed within the “Shareholders’ Equity and Noncontrolling Interest” footnote and the debt offerings discussed within this footnote, and with cash on hand. I n December 2015, Whiting paid $834 million to repurchase the remaining $798 million aggregate principal amount of the 2019 Kodiak Notes, which payment consisted of the 104.063% redemption price and all accrued and unpaid interest on such notes. The Company financed the December 2015 note repurchase with borrowings under its credit agreement. As a result of the repurchases, Whiting recognized a n $18 million loss on extinguishment of debt, which consisted of a $40 million cash charge related to the redemption premium on the Kodiak Notes, partially offset by a $22 million non-cash credit related to the acceleration of unamortized debt premiums on such notes. As of December 31, 2015, no Kodiak Notes remained outstanding.

Exchange of Senior Notes and Senior Subordinat ed Notes for Convertible Notes – O n March 23, 2016, the Company exchanged $477 million aggregate principal amount of its senior notes and senior subordinated notes, consisting of (i) $49 million aggregate principal amount of its 2018 Senior Subordinated Notes, (ii) $97 million aggregate principal amount of its 2019 Senior Notes, (iii) $152 million aggregate principal amount of its 2021 Senior Notes , and (iv) $179 million aggregate principal amount of its 2023 Senior Notes , for (i) $49 million aggregate principal amount of new 6.5% Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes due 2018 (the “2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes”), (ii) $97 million aggregate principal amount of new 5% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (the “2019 Convertible Senior Note s”), (iii) $152 million aggregate p rincipal amount of new 5.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2021 (the “202 1 Convertible Senior Notes”), and (iv) $179 million aggregate principal amount of new 6.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2023 (the “2023 Convertible Senior Notes” and, together with the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes, the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes and the 2021 Convertible Senior Notes, the “New Convertible Notes”). The redemption provisions, covenants, interest payments and maturity terms applicable to each series of New Convertible Notes are substantially identical to those applicable to the corresponding series of the Whiting Senior Notes and the 2018 Senior Subordinated Notes.

The New Convertible Notes are convertible, at the option of the holders, into shares of common stock at any time from the date of issuance up until the close of business on the earlier of (i) the fifth business day following the date of a mandatory conversion notice from the Company (see below for a discussion of the mandatory conversion terms), (ii) the business day immediately preceding the date of redemption, if Whiting were to elect to redeem all or a portion of the New Convertible Notes prior to maturity, or (iii) the business day immediately preceding the maturity date. In addition, (i) if a holder exercises its right to convert on or prior to September 23, 2016, such holder will receive an early conversion cash payment in an amount equal to 18 months of interest payable on the applicable series of notes, (ii) if a holder exercises its right to convert after September 23, 2016 but on or prior to March 23, 2017, such holder will receive an early conversion cash payment in an amount equal to 12 months of interest payable on the applicable series of notes, or (iii) if a holder exercises its right to convert after March 23, 2017 but on or prior to September 23, 2017, such holder will receive an early conversion cash payment in an amount equal to six months of interest payable on the applicable series of notes. Upon exercise of this option, the holder will also be entitled to cash payment of all accrued and unpaid interest through the conversion date.

The initial conversion rate for the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes, the 2021 Convertible Senior Notes and the 2023 Convertible Senior Notes is 86.9565 common shares per $1,000 principal amount of the notes (representing an initial conversion price of $11.50 per share), and the initial conversion rate for the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes is 90.9091 common shares per $1,000 principal amount of the notes (representing an initial conversion price of $11.00 per share). Each initial conversion rate is subject to customary adjustments if certain share transactions were to be initiated by Whiting.

The Company has the right to mandatorily convert the New Convertible Notes, in whole or in part, if the volume weighted average price (as defined in the applicable indentures governing the New Convertible Notes) of the Company’s common stock exceeds 89.13% of the applicable conversion price of the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes, the 2021 Convertible Senior Notes and the 2023 Convertible Senior Notes and 93.18% of the applicable conversion price of the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes (each representing an initial mandatory conversion trigger price of $10.25 per share) for at least 20 trading days during a 30 consecutive trading day period. No early conversion or accrued and unpaid interest payments will be made upon a mandatory conversion. As of March 31, 2016 , no mandatory conversion triggers of the New Convertible Notes had been met and no holders of the notes had exercised their conversion options.

This transaction was accounted for as an extinguishment of debt for each portion of the Whiting Senior Notes and 2018 Senior Subordinated Notes that were exchanged. As a result, Whiting recognized a $91 million gain on extinguishment of debt, which included a $4 million non-cash charge for the acceleration of unamortized debt issuance costs and debt premium on the original notes. Each series of New Convertible Notes was recorded at fair value upon issuance, with the difference between the principal amount of the notes and their fair values, totaling $95 million, recorded as a debt discount. The debt discount also includes $90 million related to the fair value of the holders’ conversion options, which are embedded derivatives that meet the criteria to be bifurcated from their host contracts and accounted for separately. These embedded derivatives will be marked to market each quarter with the changes in fair value recorded as derivative (gain) loss, net in the consolidated statements of operations. Refer to the “Derivative Financial Instruments” and “Fair Value Measurements” footnotes for more information.

The $185 million total debt discount will be amortized to interest expense over the respective terms of the notes using the effective interest method. Accrued transaction costs of $8 million attributable to the New Convertible Notes issuance were recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of long-term debt on the consolidated balance sheet and are being amortized to interest expense over the respective term s of the notes using the effective interest method.

2020 Convertible Senior Notes —In March 2015, the Company issued at par $1,250 million of 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due April 2020 (the “ 2020 Convertible Senior Notes” and together with the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes, the 2021 Convertible Senior Notes and the 2023 Convertible Senior Notes, the “Convertible Senior Notes” ) for net proceeds of $1.2 billion, net of initial purchasers’ fees of $25 million. The notes will mature on April 1, 2020 unless earlier converted in accordance with their terms.

The Company has the option to settle conversions of these notes with cash, shares of common stock or a combination of cash and common stock at its election. The Company’s intent is to settle the principal amount of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes in cash upon conversion. Prior to January 1, 2020, the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes will be convertible at the holder’s option only under the following circumstances: (i) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ending on June 30, 2015 (and only during such calendar quarter), if the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during the period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion price on each applicable trading day; (ii) during the five business day period after any five consecutive trading day period (the “measurement period”) in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes for each trading day of the measurement period is less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock and the conversion rate on each such trading day; or (iii) upon the occurrence of specified corporate events. On or after January 1, 2020, the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes will be convertible at any time until the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the April 1, 2020 maturity date of the notes. The notes will be convertible at an initial conversion rate of 25.6410 shares of Whiting’s common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $39.00 . The conversion rate will be subject to adjustment in some events. In addition, following certain corporate events that occur prior to the maturity date, the Company will increase, in certain circumstances, the conversion rate for a holder who elects to convert its 2020 Convertible Senior Notes in connection with such corporate event. As of March 31, 2016 , none of the contingent conditions allowing holders of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes to convert these notes had been met.

Upon issuance, the Company separately accounted for the liability and equity components of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes. The liability component was recorded at the estimated fair value of a similar debt instrument without the conversion feature. The difference between the principal amount of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes and the estimated fair value of the liability component was recorded as a debt discount and is being amortized to interest expense over the term of the notes using the effective interest method, with an effective interest rate of 5.6% per annum. The fair value of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes as of the issuance date was estimated at $1.0 billion, resulting in a debt discount at inception of $238 million. The equity component, representing the value of the conversion option, was computed by deducting the fair value of the liability component from the initial proceeds of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes issuance. This equity component was recorded, net of deferred taxes and issuance costs, in additional paid-in capital within shareholders’ equity, and will not be remeasured as long as it continues to meet the conditions for equity classification.

Transaction costs related to the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes issuance were allocated to the liability and equity components based on their relative fair values. Issuance costs attributable to the liability component were recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of long-term debt on the consolidated balance sheet and are being amortized to expense over the term of the notes using the effective interest method. Issuance costs attributable to the equity component were recorded as a charge to additional paid-in capital within shareholders’ equity.

The 2020 Convertible Senior Notes consist of the following at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 (in thousands):







March 31,

December 31,



2016

2015

Liability component:

Principal

$

1,250,000

$

1,250,000

Less: unamortized note discount

(194,786) (205,572)

Less: unamortized debt issuance costs

(16,293) (17,277)

Net carrying value

$

1,038,921

$

1,027,151

Equity component (1)

$

237,500

$

237,500

(1)

Recorded in additional paid-in capital, net of $ 5 million of issuance costs and $88 million of deferred taxes.

Interest expense recognized on the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes related to the stated interest rate and amortization of the debt discount totaled $15 million and $1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

The Whiting Senior Notes and the Convertible Senior Notes are unsecured obligations of Whiting Petroleum Corporation and these unsecured obligations are subordinated to all of the Company’s secured indebtedness, which consists of Whiting Oil and Gas’ credit agreement. The 2018 Senior Subordinated Notes and the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes are also unsecured obligations of Whiting Petroleum Corporation and are subordinated to all of the Company’s senior debt, which currently consists of the Whiting Senior Notes , the Convertible Senior Notes and borrowings under Whiting Oil and Gas’ credit agreement.

The Company’s obligations under the Whiting Senior Notes, the Convertible Senior Notes , the 2018 Senior Subordinated Note s and the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes are guaranteed by the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Whiting Oil and Gas, Whiting US Holding Company, Whiting Canadian Holding Company ULC and Whiting Resources Corporation (the “Guarantors”). These guarantees are full and unconditional and joint and several among the Guarantors. Any subsidiaries other than these Guarantors are minor subsidiaries as defined by Rule 3-10(h)(6) of Regulation S ‑X of the SEC. Whiting Petroleum Corporation has no assets or operations independent of this debt and its investments in its consolidated subsidiaries.

5 . ASSET RETIREMENT OBLIGATIONS

The Company’s asset retirement obligations represent the present value of estimated future costs associated with the plugging and abandonment of oil and gas wells, removal of equipment and facilities from leased acreage, and land restoration (including removal of certain onshore and offshore facilities in California) in accordance with applicable local, state and federal laws. The Company follows FASB ASC Topic 410, Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations , to determine its asset retirement obligation amounts by calculating the present value of the estimated future cash outflows associated with its plug and abandonment obligations. The current portions at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 were $9 million and $6 million, respectively, and have been included in accrued liabilities and other. Revisions to the liability typically occur due to changes in estimated abandonment costs or well economic lives, or if federal or state regulators enact new requirements regarding the abandonment of wells. The following table provides a reconciliation of the Company’s asset retirement obligations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 (in thousands):





Asset retirement obligation at January 1, 2016

$

161,908

Additional liability incurred

443

Revisions to estimated cash flows

(130)

Accretion expense

3,579

Obligations on sold properties

(140)

Liabilities settled

(3,406)

Asset retirement obligation at March 31, 2016

$

162,254

6 . DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

The Company is exposed to certain risks relating to its ongoing business operations, and Whiting uses derivative instruments to manage its commodity price risk. In addition, the Company has convertible notes that contain embedded conversion options which are required to be accounted for as derivatives. Whiting follows FASB ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging , to account for its derivative financial instruments.

Commodity Derivative Contracts — Historically, prices received for crude oil and natural gas production have been volatile because of supply and demand factors, worldwide political factors, general economic conditions and seasonal weather patterns. Whiting enters into derivative contracts such as costless collars, swaps and crude oil sales and delivery contracts , to achieve a more predictable cash flow by reducing its exposure to commodity price volatility. Commodity derivative contracts are thereby used to ensure adequate cash flow to fund the Company’s capital programs and to manage returns on drilling programs and acquisitions. The Company does not enter into derivative contracts for speculative or trading purposes.

Crude Oil Costless Collars. Costless collars are designed to establish floor and ceiling prices on anticipated future oil or gas production. While the use of these derivative instruments limits the downside risk of adverse price movements, they may also limit future revenues from favorable price movements.

The table below details the Company’s costless collar derivatives entered into to hedge forecasted crude oil production revenues as of April 26, 2016 .







Whiting Petroleum Corporation



Derivative

Contracted Crude

Weighted Average NYMEX Price

Instrument

Period

Oil Volumes (Bbl)

Collar Ranges for Crude Oil (per Bbl)

Three-way collars (1)

Apr - Dec 2016

12,600,000

$43.75 - $53.75 - $74.40



Jan - Dec 2017

1,800,000

$30.00 - $40.00 - $59.02

Collars

Apr - Dec 2016

2,250,000

$51.00 - $63.48



Jan - Dec 2017

3,000,000

$53.00 - $70.44



Total

19,650,000

(1)

A three-way collar is a combination of options: a sold call, a purchased put and a sold put. The sold call establishes a maximum price (ceiling) Whiting will receive for the volumes under contract. The purchased put establishes a minimum price (floor), unless the market price falls below the sold put (sub-floor), at which point the minimum price would be NYMEX plus the difference between the purchased put and the sold put strike price.

Crude Oil Sales and Delivery Contract. The Company has a long-term crude oil sales and delivery contract for oil volumes produced from its Redtail field in Colorado. Under the terms of the agreement, Whiting has committed to deliver certain fixed volumes of crude oil through 2020. The Company determined that it was not probable that future oil production from its Redtail field would be sufficient to meet the minimum volume requirement specified in this contract, and accordingly, that the Company would not settle this contract through physical delivery of crude oil volumes. As a result, Whiting determined that this contract would not qualify for the “normal purchase normal sale” exclusion and has therefore reflected the contract at fair value in the consolidated financial statements. As of March 31, 2016 , the estimated fair value of this derivative contract was a liability of $7 million.

Embedded Derivative s — In March 2016, the Company issued convertible notes that contain debt holder conversion options which the Company determined were not clearly and closely related to the debt host contracts, and the Company therefore bifurcated these embedded features and reflected them at fair value in the consolidated financial statements. As of March 31, 2016 , t he estimated fair value of these embedded derivatives was a liability of $ 111 million.

Derivative Instrument Reporting — All derivative instruments are recorded in the consolidated financial statements at fair value, other than derivative instruments that meet the “normal purchase normal sale” exclusion or other derivative scope exceptions . The following table summarizes the effects of derivative instruments on the consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 (in thousands):







(Gain) Loss Recognized in Income

Not Designated as

Statement of Operations

Three Months Ended March 31,

ASC 815 Hedges

Classification

2016

2015

Commodity contracts

Derivative (gain) loss, net

$

(16,745)

$

(9,851)

Embedded derivatives

Derivative (gain) loss, net

21,506

-

Total

$

4,761

$

(9,851)

Offsetting of Derivative Assets and Liabilities. The Company nets its financial derivative instrument fair value amounts executed with the same counterparty pursuant to ISDA master agreements, which pr ovide for net settlement over the term of the contract and in the event of default or termination of the contract. The following tables summarize the location and fair value amounts of all the Company’s derivative instruments in the consolidated balance sheets, as well as the gross recognized derivative assets, liabilities and amounts offset in the consolidated balance sheets (in thousands):







March 31, 2016 (1)



Net



Gross

Recognized



Recognized

Gross

Fair Value

Not Designated as

Assets/

Amounts

Assets/

ASC 815 Hedges

Balance Sheet Classification

Liabilities

Offset

Liabilities

Derivative assets:

Commodity contracts - current

Derivative assets

$

195,248

$

(67,454)

$

127,794

Commodity contracts - non-current

Other long-term assets

25,867 (2,189) 23,678

Total derivative assets

$

221,115

$

(69,643)

$

151,472

Derivative liabilities:

Commodity contracts - current

Accrued liabilities and other

$

69,755

$

(67,454)

$

2,301

Commodity contracts - non-current

Other long-term liabilities

7,125 (2,189) 4,936

Embedded derivatives - non-current

Long-term debt

111,390

-

111,390

Total derivative liabilities

$

188,270

$

(69,643)

$

118,627







December 31, 2015 (1)



Net



Gross

Recognized



Recognized

Gross

Fair Value

Not Designated as

Assets/

Amounts

Assets/

ASC 815 Hedges

Balance Sheet Classification

Liabilities

Offset

Liabilities

Derivative assets:

Commodity contracts - current

Derivative assets

$

258,778

$

(100,049)

$

158,729

Commodity contracts - non-current

Other long-term assets

31,415 (3,465) 27,950

Total derivative assets

$

290,193

$

(103,514)

$

186,679

Derivative liabilities:

Commodity contracts - current

Accrued liabilities and other

$

101,214

$

(100,049)

$

1,165

Commodity contracts - non-current

Other long-term liabilities

6,327 (3,465) 2,862

Total derivative liabilities

$

107,541

$

(103,514)

$

4,027

(1)

Because counterparties to the Company’s financial derivative contracts subject to master netting arrangements are lenders under Whiting Oil and Gas’ credit agreement, which eliminates its need to post or receive collateral associated with its derivative positions, columns for cash collateral pledged or received have not been presented in the se tables.

Contingent Features in Financial Derivative Instruments . None of the Company’s derivative instruments contain credit-risk-related contingent features. Counterparties to the Company’s financial derivative contracts are high credit-quality financial institutions that are lenders under Whiting’s credit agreement. The Company uses only credit agreement participants to hedge with, since these institutions are secured equally with the holders of Whiting’s bank debt, which eliminates the potential need to post collateral when Whiting is in a derivative liability position. As a result, the Company is not required to post letters of credit or corporate guarantees for its derivative counterparties in order to secure contract performance obligations.

7 . FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

The Company follows FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure , which establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosure of fair value measurements. The valuation hierarchy categorizes assets and liabilities measured at fair value into one of three different levels depending on the observability of the inputs employed in the measurement. The three levels are defined as follows:

·

Level 1: Quoted Prices in Active Markets for Identical Assets – inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.

·

Level 2: Significant Other Observable Inputs – inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.

·

Level 3: Significant Unobservable Inputs – inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.

A financial instrument’s categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability. The Company reflects transfers between the three levels at the beginning of the reporting period in which the availability of observable inputs no longer justifies classification in the original level.

Cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable are carried at cost, which approximates their fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments. The Company’s credit agreement has a recorded value that approximates its fair value since its variable interest rate is tied to current market rates.

The Company’s senior n otes and senior subordinated n otes are recorded at cost , and the Company’s convertible senior notes and convertible senior subordinated notes are recorded at fair value at the date of issuance . The following table summarizes the fair values and carrying values of these instruments as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 (in thousands):







March 31, 2016

December 31, 2015



Fair

Carrying

Fair

Carrying



Value

Value

Value

Value

6.5% Senior Subordinated Notes due 2018

$

200,357

$

298,823

$

265,125

$

346,876

6.5% Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes due 2018 (1)

40,187 39,987

-

-

5% Senior Notes due 2019

694,708 996,603 830,500 1,092,219

5% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (1)

81,383 81,788

-

-

1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2020

739,063 1,038,921 850,000 1,027,151

5.75% Senior Notes due 2021

699,222 1,040,646 870,000 1,191,861

5.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2021 (1)

125,222 126,797

-

-

6.25% Senior Notes due 2023

384,171 563,550 543,750 739,597

6.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2023 (1)

148,132 147,480

-

-

Total

$

3,112,445

$

4,334,595

$

3,359,375

$

4,397,704

(1)

The carrying values of the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes, the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes, the 2021 Convertible Senior Notes and the 2023 Convertible Senior Notes include the fair values of the debt holder conversion options of $7 million, $16 million, $34 million, and $54 million, respectively, as of March 31, 2016 .

The fair values included in the table above are based on quoted market prices for these debt securities, and such fair values are therefore designated as Level 1 within the valuation hierarchy.

The Company’s derivative financial instruments are recorded at fair value and include a measure of the Company’s own nonperformance risk or that of its counterpart y , as appropriate. The following tables present information about the Company’s financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 , and indicate the fair value hierarchy of the valuation techniques utilized by the Company to determine such fair values (in thousands):







Total Fair Value



Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

March 31, 2016

Financial Assets

Commodity derivatives – current

$

-

$

127,794

$

-

$

127,794

Commodity derivatives – non-current

-

23,678

-

23,678

Total financial assets

$

-

$

151,472

$

-

$

151,472

Financial Liabilities

Commodity derivatives – current

$

-

$

-

$

2,301

$

2,301

Commodity derivatives – non-current

-

-

4,936 4,936

Embedded derivatives – non-current

-

-

111,390 111,390

Total financial liabilities

$

-

$

-

$

118,627

$

118,627







Total Fair Value



Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

December 31, 2015

Financial Assets

Commodity derivatives – current

$

-

$

158,729

$

-

$

158,729

Commodity derivatives – non-current

-

27,950

-

27,950

Total financial assets

$

-

$

186,679

$

-

$

186,679

Financial Liabilities

Commodity derivatives – current

$

-

$

-

$

1,165

$

1,165

Commodity derivatives – non-current

-

-

2,862 2,862

Total financial liabilities

$

-

$

-

$

4,027

$

4,027

The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair values of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that are measured on a recurring basis:

Commodity Derivatives . Commodity derivative instruments consist mainly of costless collars for crude oil. The Company’s costless collars are valued based on an income approach. T he option model consider s various assumptions, such as quoted forward prices for commodities, time value and volatility factors. These assumptions are observable in the marketplace throughout the full term of the contract, can be derived from observable data or are supported by observable levels at which transactions are executed in the marketplace, and are therefore designated as Level 2 within the valuation hierarchy. The discount rates used in the fair values of these instruments include a measure of either the Company’s or the counterparty’s nonperformance risk, as appropriate. The Company utilizes its counterparties’ valuations to assess the reasonableness of its own valuations.

In addition, the Company has a long-term crude oil sales and delivery contract, whereby it has committed to deliver certain fixed volumes of crude oil through 2020. Whiting has determined that the contract did not meet the “normal purchase normal sale” exclusion, and has therefore reflected this contract at fair value in its consolidated financial statements. This commodity derivative was valued based on an income approach which considers various assumptions, including quoted forward prices for commodities, market differentials for crude oil, U.S. Treasury rates and either the Company’s or the counterparty’s nonperformance risk, as appropriate. The assumptions used in the valuation of the crude oil sales and delivery contract include certain market differential metrics that were unobservable during the term of the contract. Such unobservable inputs were significant to the contract valuation methodology, and the contract’s fair value was therefore designated as Level 3 within the valuation hierarchy.

Embedded Derivatives . The em bedded derivatives relate to the Company’s convertible notes issued in March 2016 that contain debt holder conversion options which the Company determined were not clearly and closely related to the debt host contracts and the Company therefore bifurcated these embedded features and reflected them at fair value in the consolidated financial statements . The fair values of these embedded derivatives are determined using a binomial lattice model which considers various inputs including (i) Whiting’s common stock price, (ii) risk-free rates based on U.S. Treasury rates, (iii) recovery rates in the event of default, (iv) default intensity, and (v) volatility of Whiting’s common stock. The expected volatility and default intensity used in the valuation are unobservable in the marketplace and significant to the valuation methodology, and the embedded derivatives’ fair value is therefore designated as Level 3 in the valuation hierarchy.

Level 3 Fair Value Measurements. A third-party valuation specialist is utilized to determine the fair value of the Company’s derivative instruments designated as Level 3. The Company reviews these valuations , including the related model inputs and assumptions , and analyzes changes in fair value measurements between periods. The Company corroborates such inputs, calculations and fair value changes using various methodologies, and reviews unobservable inputs for reasonableness utilizing relevant information from other published sources.

T he following table presents a reconciliation of changes in the fair value of financial assets or liabilities designated as Level 3 in the valuation hierarchy for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 (in thousands):







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

Fair value asset (liability), beginning of period

$

(4,027)

$

53,530

Recognition of embedded derivatives associated with convertible note issuances

(89,884)

-

Unrealized losses on commodity derivative contracts included in earnings (1)

(3,210) (17,744)

Unrealized losses on embedded derivatives included in earnings (1)

(21,506)

-

Transfers into (out of) Level 3

-

-

Fair value asset (liability), end of period

$

(118,627)

$

35,786

Quantitative Information About Level 3 Fair Value Measurements. The significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of the Company’s derivative instruments designated as Level 3 are as follows:





Derivative Instrument

Valuation Technique

Unobservable Input

Amount/Range

Commodity derivative contract

Income approach

Market differential for crude oil

$5.07 per Bbl

Embedded derivatives

Binomial lattice model

Expected volatility

25.0% (1)

Embedded derivatives

Binomial lattice model

Default intensity

17.3% - 27.0%

(1)

The trading values of convertible debt instruments do not fully incorporate stock price volatility . It is therefore necessary to derive a lower model volatility than that which is observed in historical volatility data for the Company’s common stock.

Sensitivity to Changes In Significant Unobservable Inputs. As presented above, the significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of Whiting’s commodity derivative contract are the market differentials for crude oil over the term of the contract. Significant increases or decreases in these unobservable inputs in isolation would result in a significantly higher or lower, respectively, fair value liability measurement.

The significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of Whiting’s embedded derivatives are the expected volatility and default intensity. Significant increases o r decreases in these unobservable inputs in isolation would result in a significantly higher or lower, respectively, fair value liability measurement.

Non-recurring Fair Value Measurements . The Company applies the provisions of the fair value measurement standard on a non-recurring basis to its non-financial assets and liabilities, including proved property. These assets and liabilities are not measured at fair value on an ongoing basis but are subject to fair value adjustments only in certain circumstances. The Company did not recognize any impairment write-downs with respect to its proved property during the 2016 or 2015 reporting periods presented.

8 . SHAREHOLDERS ’ EQUITY AND NONCONTROLLING INTEREST

Common Stock Offering — In March 2015, the Company completed a public offering of its common stock, selling 35,000,000 shares of common stock at a price of $30.00 per share and providing net proceeds of approximately $1.0 billion after underwriter’s fees. In addition, the Company granted the underwriter a 30 -day option to purchase up to an additional 5,250,000 shares of common stock. On April 1, 2015, the underwriter exercised its right to purchase an additional 2,000,000 shares of common stock, providing additional net proceeds of $61 million. The Company used the net proceeds from these offerings to repay a portion of the debt outstanding under its credit agreement, as well as for general corporate purposes.

Equity Incentive Plan —At the Company’s 2013 Annual Meeting held on May 7, 2013, shareholders approved the Whiting Petroleum Corporation 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2013 Equity Plan”), which replaced the Whiting Petroleum Corporation 2003 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2003 Equity Plan”) and includes the authority to issue 5,300,000 shares of the Company’s common stock. Upon shareholder approval of the 2013 Equity Plan, the 2003 Equity Plan was terminated. The 2003 Equity Plan continues to govern awards that were outstanding as of the date of its termination, which remain in effect pursuant to their terms. Any shares netted or forfeited after May 7, 2013 under the 2003 Equity Plan and any shares forfeited under the 2013 Equity Plan will be available for future issuance under the 2013 Equity Plan. However, shares netted for tax withholding under the 2013 Equity Plan will be cancelled and will not be available for future issuance. Under the 2013 Equity Plan, no employee or officer participant may be granted options for more than 600,000 shares of common stock, stock appreciation rights relating to more than 600,000 shares of common stock, or more than 300,000 shares of restricted stock during any calendar year. On December 8, 2014, the Company increased the number of shares

issuable under the 2013 Equity Plan by 978,161 shares to accommodate for the conversion of Kodiak’s outstanding equity awards to Whiting equity awards upon closing of the Kodiak Acquisition. Any shares netted or forfeited under this increased availability will be cancelled and will not be available for future issuance under the 2013 Equity Plan. As of March 31, 2016 , 778,343 shares of common stock remained available for grant under the 2013 Equity Plan.

At the Company’s 2016 Annual Meeting scheduled for May 17, 2016, shareholders will vote on approval of an amendment and restatement of the 2013 Equity Plan which, if approved, will include the authority to issue an additional 5,500,000 shares of the Company’s common stock.

For the three months ended March 31, 201 6 and 201 5 , total stock compensation expense recognized for restricted share awards and stock options was $ 7 million during each period .

Restricted Shares . The Company grants service-based restricted stock awards to executive officers and employees, which generally vest ratably over a three -year service period, and to directors, which generally vest over a one -year service period. In addition, the Company grants restricted stock awards to executive officers that are subject to market-based vesting criteria as well as a three -year service period. The Company uses historical data and projections to estimate expected employee behaviors related to restricted stock forfeitures. The expected forfeitures are then included as part of the grant date estimate of compensation cost. The Company recognizes compensation expense for all awards subject to market -based vesting conditions regardless of whether it becomes probable that these conditions will be achieved or not, and compensation expense is not reversed if vesting does not actually occur.

In January 201 6 and 2015 , 1,073,14 3 shares and 391,773 shares, respectively, of restricted stock subject to certain market-based vesting criteria were granted to executive officers under the 2013 Equity Plan. These market-based awards cliff vest on the third anniversary of the grant date, and the number of shares that will vest at the end of that three -year performance period will be determined based on the rank of Whiting’s cumulative stockholder return compared to the stockholder return of a peer group of companies over the same three-year period. The number of shares earned could range from zero up to two times the number of shares initially granted.

For service-based restricted stock awards, the grant date fair value is determined based on the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date. For the awards subject to market conditions, the grant date fair value was estimated using a Monte Carlo valuation model. The Monte Carlo model is based on random projections of stock price paths and must be repeated numerous times to achieve a probabilistic assessment. Expected volatility was calculated based on the historical volatility of Whiting’s common stock, and the risk-free interest rate is based on U.S. Treasury yield curve rates with maturities consistent with the three-year vesting period. The key assumptions used in valuing the market-based restricted shares were as follows:





2016

2015

Number of simulations

2,500,000

2,500,000

Expected volatility

60.8 %

40.3%

Risk-free interest rate

1.13 %

0.99%

Dividend yield

-

-

The grant date fair value of the market-based restricted stock as determined by the Monte Carlo valuation model was $ 6.39 per share and $ 33.25 per share in January 201 6 and 201 5 , respectively.

The following table shows a summary of the Company’s nonvested restricted stock as of March 31, 201 6, as well as activity during the three months then ended:





Number of Shares

Weighted Average



Service-Based

Market-Based

Grant Date



Restricted Stock

Restricted Stock

Fair Value

Nonvested awards, January 1, 2016

892,693 1,400,963

$

30.03

Granted

2,845,058 1,073,143 6.65

Vested

(324,731)

-

36.26

Forfeited

(189,465) (381,296) 19.22

Nonvested awards, March 31, 201 6

3,223,555 2,092,810

$

13.58

As of March 31, 201 6 , there was $ 36 million of total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested restricted stock granted under the stock incentive plans. That cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2. 3 years.

Stock Options . There was no significant stock option activity during the three months ended March 31, 2016 .

Noncontrolling Interest —The Company’s noncontrolling interest represents an unrelated third party’s 25% ownership interest in Sustainable Water Resources, LLC. The table below summarizes the activity for the equity attributable to the noncontrolling interest (in thousands):







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

Balance at beginning of period

$

7,984

$

8,070

Net loss

(10) (17)

Balance at end of period

$

7,974

$

8,053

9 . INCOME TAXES

Income tax expense during interim periods is based on applying an estimated annual effective income tax rate to year-to-date income, plus any significant unusual or infrequently occurring items which are recorded in the interim period. The provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 differs from the amount that would be provided by applying the statutory U.S. federal income tax rate of 35% to pre-tax income primarily because of state income taxes and estimated permanent differences.

The computation of the annual estimated effective tax rate at each interim period requires certain estimates and significant judgment including, but not limited to, the expected operating income for the year, projections of the proportion of income earned and taxed in various jurisdictions, permanent and temporary differences, and the likelihood of recovering deferred tax assets generated in the current year. The accounting estimates used to compute the provision for income taxes may change as new events occur, more experience is obtained, additional information becomes known or as the tax environment changes.

10 . EARNINGS PER SHARE

The reconciliations between basic and diluted loss per share are as follows (in thousands, except per share data):







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

Basic Loss Per Share

Numerator:

Net loss available to common shareholders, basic

$

(171,748)

$

(106,111)

Denominator:

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic

204,367 168,990



Diluted Loss Per Share

Numerator:

Adjusted net loss available to common shareholders, diluted

$

(171,748)

$

(106,111)

Denominator:

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted

204,367 168,990

Loss per common share, basic

$

(0.84)

$

(0.63)

Loss per common share, diluted

$

(0.84)

$

(0.63)

During the three months ended March 31, 2016 , the Company had a net loss and therefore the diluted earnings per share calculation for that period excludes the anti-dilutive effect of 4,137,880 shares issuable upon conversion of the New Convertible Notes and 4,144 stock options. In addition, the diluted earnings per share calculation for the three months ended March 31, 2016 excludes the dilutive effect of (i) 3,080,193 common shares for stock options that were out-of-the-money , (ii) 1,121,721 shares of restricted stock that did not meet its market-based vesting criteria as of March 31, 2016 , and (iii) 205,088 shares of service-based restricted stock.

During the three months ended March 31, 2015, the Company had a net loss and therefore the diluted earnings per share calculation for that period excludes the anti-dilutive effect of 237,546 shares of restricted stock and 117,263 stock options. In addition, the diluted earnings per share calculation for the three months ended March 31, 2015 excludes (i) the anti-dilutive effect of 755,528 incremental shares of restricted stock that did not meet its market-based vesting criteria as of March 31, 2015 and (ii) the dilutive effect of 326,219 common shares for stock options that were out-of-the-money.

As discussed in the “Long-Term Debt” footnote, the Company has the option to settle the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes with cash, shares of common stock or any combination thereof upon conversion. The Company’s intent is to settle the principal amount of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes in cash upon conversion. As a result, only the amount by which the conversion value exceeds the aggregate principal amount of the notes (the “conversion spread”) is considered in the diluted earnings per share computation under the treasury stock method. As of March 31, 2016 and 2015 , the conversion value did not exceed the principal amount of the notes, and accordingly, there was no impact to diluted earnings per share or the related disclosures for th ose period s .

1 1 . ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

In March 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-09, Improvements To Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-09”). The objective of this ASU is to simplify several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions, including income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Portions of this ASU must be applied prospectively while other portions may be applied either prospectively or retrospectively. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements of adopting ASU 201 6 ‑0 9 .

In March 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-06, Contingent Put and Call Options in Debt Instruments (“ASU 2016-06”). This ASU clarifies the requirements to assess whether an embedded put or call option is clearly and closely related to the debt host, solely in accordance with the four-step decision sequence in FASB ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging , as amended by ASU 2016-06. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016 and should be applied using a modified retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 201 6 ‑0 6, however the standard is not expected to have a significant effect on its consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”). The objective of this ASU is to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. ASU 201 6 - 02 is effective for fiscal years , and interim periods within those fiscal years , beginning after December 15, 201 8 and should be applied using a modified retrospective approach . Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements of adopting ASU 201 6 ‑0 2 .

In January 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (“ASU 2016-01”). This ASU amends the guidance in U.S. GAAP on financial instruments specifically related to (i) the classification and measurement of investments in equity securities, (ii) the presentation of certain fair value changes for financial liabilities measured at fair value and (iii) certain disclosure requirements associated with the fair value of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted only for the provisions of this ASU related to FASB ASC 825, Financial Instruments . A cumulative-effect adjustment to beginning retained earnings is required as of the beginning of the fiscal year in which this ASU is adopted. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In September 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-16, Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments (“ASU 2015-16”). This ASU eliminates the requirement to retrospectively apply measurement-period adjustments made to provisional amounts recognized in a business combination. Under ASU 2015-16, the cumulative impact of a measurement-period adjustment (including the impact on prior periods) should instead be recognized in the reporting period in which the adjustment is identified. ASU 2015-16 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. This standard should be applied prospectively, and early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2015-16 effective January 1, 2016, which did not have an impact on the Company’s financial statements.

In July 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (“ASU 2015-11”). This ASU requires entities to measure most inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value, thereby simplifying the current guidance under which an entity must measure inventory at the lower of cost or market. ASU 2015-11 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years and should be applied prospectively. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this standard will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In August 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements – Going Concern (“ASU 2014-15”). The objective of ASU 2014-15 is to provide guidance on management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. ASU 2014-15

is effective for fiscal years ending after December 15, 2016 and annual and interim periods thereafter. This standard is not expected to have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014 ‑09”). The objective of ASU 2014-09 is to clarify the principles for recognizing revenue and to develop a common revenue standard for U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards. The FASB subsequently issued ASU 2015-14, ASU 2016-08 and ASU 2016-10 which deferred the effective date of ASU 2014-09 and provided additional implementation guidance. These ASUs are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 31, 2017. The standards permit retrospective application using either of the following methodologies: (i) restatement of each prior reporting period presented or (ii) recognition of a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of initial application. The Company is currently evaluating the imp act of adopting these standards on its consolidated financial statements , as well as the transition method to be applied .

Item 2 . Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Unless the context otherwi se requires, the terms “Whiting ” , “we ” , “us ” , “our” or “ours” when used in this Item refer to Whiting Petroleum Corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, Whiting Oil and Gas Corporation (“Whiting Oil and Gas”), Whiting US Holding Company, Whiting Canadian Holding Company ULC (formerly Kodiak Oil & Gas Corp., “Kodiak”), Whiting Resources Corporation (formerly Kodiak Oil & Gas (USA) Inc.) and Whiting Programs, Inc. When the context requires, we refer to these entities separately. This document contains forward-looking statements, which give our current expectations or forecasts of future events. Please refer to “Forward-Looking Statements” at the end of this Item for an explanation of these types of statements.

Overview

We are an independent oil and gas company engaged in development, production , acquisition and exploration activities primarily in the Rocky Mountains and Permian Basin regions of the United States. Since 2006, we have increased our focus on organic drilling activity and on the development of previously acquired properties, specifically on projects that we believe provide the opportunity for repeatable success and production growth , while selectively pursuing acquisitions that complement our existing core properties . As a result of sustained lower crude oil prices in 2015 and the first three months of 2016, we have significantly reduced our level of capital spending to more closely align with our cash flows generated from operations, and have focused our drilling activity on projects that provide the highest rate of return. In addition, w e continually evaluate our property portfolio and sell properties when we believe that the sales price realized will provide an above average rate of return for the property or when the property no longer matches the profile of properties we desire to own , such as the asset sales in 2015 discussed in the “Acquisitions and Divestitures” footnote in the notes to consolidated financial statements. We are currently exploring additional asset sales of non-core properties and anticipate further sales during the remainder of 2016.

Our revenue, profitability and future growth rate depend on many factors which are beyond our control, such as oil and gas prices as well as economic, political and regulatory developments and competition from other sources of energy , as well as other items discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2015 . Oil and gas prices historically have been volatile and may fluctuate widely in the future. The following table highlights the quarterly average NYMEX price trends for crude oil and natural gas prices since the first quarter of 201 4 :







2014

2015

2016



Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Crude oil

$

98.62

$

102.98

$

97.21

$

73.12

$

48.57

$

57.96

$

46.44

$

42.17

$

33.51

Natural gas

$

4.93

$

4.68

$

4.07

$

4.04

$

2.99

$

2.61

$

2.74

$

2.17

$

2.06

Oil prices have fallen significantly since reaching highs of over $105.00 per Bbl in June 2014, dropping below $ 27 .00 per Bbl in February 2016 . Natural gas prices have also declined from over $4.80 per Mcf in April 2014 to below $ 1 . 70 per Mcf in March 2016 . Although oil prices have recently begun to recover from the lows experienced during the first quarter of 2016, forecasted prices for both oil and gas for the remainder of 2016 remain low. Lower oil , NGL and natural gas prices may not only decr ease our revenues, but may also reduce the amount of oil and natural gas that we can produce economically and therefore potentiall y lower our oil and gas reserve quantities . S ubstantial and extended decline s in oil , NGL and natural gas prices have resulted and may continue to result in impairments of our proved oil and gas properties or undeveloped acreage and may materially and adversely affect our future business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations, liquidity or ability to finance planned capital expenditures. In addition, l ower commodity prices have reduced, and may further reduce, the amount of our borrowing base under our credit agreement (such as the reduction discussed below under “Financing Highlights”) , which is determined at the discretion of the lenders and is based on the collateral value of our proved reserves that have been mortgaged to the lenders. Upon a redetermination, if borrowings in excess of the revised borrowing capacity were outstanding, we could be forced to immediately repay a portion of the debt outstanding under our credit agreement. Alternatively , higher oil prices may result in significant mark-to-market losses being incurred on our commodity-ba sed derivatives.

201 6 Highlights and Future Considerations

Operational Highlights

Williston Basin

Our properties in the Williston Basin of North Dakota and Montana target the Bakken and Three Forks formations. Net production from the Williston Basin averaged 124.9 MBOE/d for the first quarter of 2016, which represents a 3% decrease from 128.6 MBOE/d in the fourth quarter of 2015. As of March 31, 2016, we had two rigs active in the Williston Basin, and we plan to maintain a two-rig drilling program in this area for the remainder of the year . In April 2016, we entered into a wellbore participation agreement related to

the wells that we intend to drill in the Williston Basin during 2016. This agreement will allow us to continue completion activity in this area, resulting in higher production volumes, without increasing our planned capital expenditures. Across our acreage in the Williston Basin, we have implemented our new completion design which utilizes cemented liners, plug-and-perf technology , significantly higher sand volumes , new diversion technology and both hybrid and slickwater fracture stimulation methods and has resulted in improved initial production rates.

In order to process the produced gas stream from our wells in the Sanish field , we constructed the Robinson Lake gas plant. The plant has a current processing capacity of 130 MMcf/d and fractionation equipment that allows us to convert NGLs into propane and butane, which end products can then be sold locally for higher realized prices. As of March 31, 2016, the plant was processing over 113 MMcf/d.

We also hold a 50% ownership interest in a gas processing plant, gathering systems and related facilities located south of Belfield, North Dakota, which primarily processes production from our Pronghorn field . There is currently inlet compression in place to process 35 MMcf/d , and a s of March 31, 2016 , the plant was processing 18 MMcf/d.

Denver Julesburg Basin

Our Redtail field in the Denver Julesb u rg Basin (“DJ Basin”) in Weld County, Colorado targets the Niobrara and Codell/Fort Hays formation s . In the first quarter of 201 6 , net production from the Redtail field averaged 11.8 MBOE/d, representing a 17 % de crease from 14.3 MBOE/d in the fourth quarter of 201 5 . We have established production in the Niobrara “A”, “B” and “C” zones and the Codell/Fort Hays formations. Our development plan at Redtail currently includes drilling up to eight wells per spacing unit in the Niobrara “A” , “B” and “C” zones and up to four wells per spacing unit in the Codell/Fort Hays formations. Additionally, the Codell/Fort Hays formation is prospective throughout our acreage in the Redtail field, and we are currently evaluating that formation. We have implemented a new wellbore configuration in this area, which significantly reduces drilling times. As of March 31, 2016 , we had two drilling rig s operating in the DJ Basin. We plan to maintain a two-rig drilling program in this area for the remainder of 2016, while suspending our completion activity beginning in the second quarter.

In April 2014, we brought online the Redtail gas plant to process the associated gas produced from our wells in this area. During the third quarter of 2015, t he plant’s inlet capacity was expanded to 50 MMcf/d from 20 MMcf/d . As of March 31, 2016, the plant was processing 20 MMcf/d.

Permian Basin

Our North Ward Estes field in the Ward and Winkler counties in Texas has responded positively to the water and CO 2 floods that we initiated in May 2007. Production from this EOR project is primarily from the Yates formation, with additional production from other zones including the Queen formation. We are currently injecting CO 2 in to one of the largest phases of our eight-phase project at this field . As of March 31, 2016 , we were injecting approximately 355 MMcf /d of CO 2 into the field, over half of which is recycled. Net production from North Ward Estes averaged 8.9 MBOE/d for the first quarter of 201 6 , which represents a 3% decrease from 9.2 MBOE/d in the fourth quarter of 201 5 .

Financing Highlights

On March 25, 2016, we entered into an amendment to our existing credit agreement and related guaranty and collateral agreement in connection with the May 1, 2016 regular borrowing base redetermination that, among other things, (i) decreased our borrowing base under the facility from $4.0 billion to $2.75 billion, effective May 1, 2016, (ii) reduced our aggregate commitments under the credit agreement from $3.5 billion to $2.5 billion, (iii) reduced our maximum letter of credit commitment amount from $100 million to $50 million, (iv) increased the applicable margin based on the borrowing base utilization percentage by 50 basis points per annum, (v) increased the commitment fee to 50 basis points per annum, (vi) permits us and certain of our subsidiaries to issue second lien indebtedness up to $1.0 billion subject to various conditions and limitations, (vii) increased our permitted ratio of total senior secured debt to the last four quarters’ EBITDAX (as defined in the credit agreement) from less than 2.5 to 1.0 to less than 3.0 to 1.0 during the interim covenant period, and (viii) permits us and certain of our subsidiaries to dispose of our respective ownership interests in certain gas gathering and processing plants located in North Dakota without reducing the borrowing base.

O n March 23, 2016, we exchanged $477 million aggregate principal amount of our senior notes and senior subordinated notes, consisting of (i) $49 million aggregate principal amount of our 2018 Senior Subordinated Notes, (ii) $97 million aggregate principal amount of our 2019 Senior Notes, (iii) $15 2 million aggregate principal amount of our 2021 Senior Notes , and (iv) $179 million aggregate principal amount of our 2023 Senior Notes , for (i) $49 million aggregate principal amount of new 6.5% Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes due 2018 , (ii) $97 million aggregate principal amount of new 5 % Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 , (iii) $152 million aggregate p rincipal amount of new 5.75 % Co nvertible Senior Notes due 2021, and (iv) $179 million aggregate principal amount of new 6.25% Convertible Seni or Notes due 2023 (together the “New Convertible Notes”). The New Convertible Notes are

convertible into shares of our common stock, and the redemption provisions, covenants, interest payments and maturity terms applicable to each series of New Convertible Notes are substantially identical to those applicable to the corresponding series of exchanged notes. For further information on the New Convertible Notes, refer to the “Long-Term Debt” footnote in the notes to consolidated financial statements.

Results of Operations

Three Months Ended March 31 , 201 6 Compared to Three Months Ended March 31 , 201 5







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

Net production:

Oil (MMBbl)

10.0 12.2

NGLs (MMBbl)

1.6 1.1

Natural gas (Bcf)

10.5 10.4

Total production (MMBOE)

13.4 15.0

Net sales (in millions):

Oil (1)

$

269.7

$

478.1

NGLs

9.0 14.6

Natural gas

11.0 27.1

Total oil, NGL and natural gas sales

$

289.7

$

519.8

Average sales prices:

Oil (per Bbl) (1)

$

27.07

$

39.25

Effect of oil hedges on average price (per Bbl)

5.54 4.15

Oil net of hedging (per Bbl)

$

32.61

$

43.40

Weighted average NYMEX price (per Bbl) (2)

$

33.52

$

48.58

NGLs (per Bbl)

$

5.48

$

13.10

Natural gas (per Mcf)

$

1.05

$

2.61

Weighted average NYMEX price (per Mcf) (2)

$

2.05

$

2.98

Costs and expenses (per BOE):

Lease operating expenses

$

8.56

$

11.07

Production taxes

$

1.94

$

2.95

Depreciation, depletion and amortization

$

23.38

$

18.87

General and administrative

$

3.35

$

2.93

Oil, NGL and Natural Gas Sale s . Our oil, NGL and natural gas sales revenue decreased $230 million to $290 m illion when comparing the first quarter of 2016 to the same period in 201 5 . Sales revenue is a function of oil, NGL and gas volumes sold and average commodity prices realized. Our oil sales volumes de creased 18% , while our NGL sales volumes increased 47% and our natural gas sales volumes increased 1% between period s. The oil volume decrease between periods was primarily attributable to normal field production decline across several of our areas resulting from reduced drilling and completion activity during 2015 and the first quarter of 2016 in response to the depressed commodity price environment. In addition, we completed several non-core oil and gas property divestitures during 2015, which negatively impacted oil production in the first quarter of 2016 by 560 MBbl . These decreases were partially offset by new wells drilled and completed in the Williston B asin and DJ Basin which added 2,770 MBbl and 360 MBbl, respectively, of oil production during the first quarter of 2016 as compared to the first quarter of 2015 . Our NGL sales volume increases between periods generally related to new wells drilled and completed in the Williston Basin and DJ Basin, as well as additional volumes processed as more wells were connected to gas processing plants in the Williston Basin over the last twelve months. These NGL volume increases were largely offset by normal field production decline across several of our areas. T he gas volume increase between periods was primarily due to drilling success at our Williston Basin and DJ Basin properties which resulted in 3,750 MMcf and 660 MMcf, respectively, of additional gas volumes during the first quarter of 2016 as compared to the first quarter of 2015 . In addition, gas volumes increased between periods as more wells were connected to gas processing plants in the Williston

Basin over the last twelve months in an effort to increase our overall gas capture rate in this area. Th e se gas volume increase s w ere largely offset by the 2015 property divestitures, which negatively impacted gas production in the first quarter of 2016 by 2,765 MMcf, as well as normal field production decline across several of our areas .

In addition to production-related de creases in net revenue there were also significant decreases in the average sales price realized for oil, NGLs and natural gas in the first quarter of 201 6 compared to 201 5. Our average price for oil before the effects of hedging decreased 31% , our average sales price for NGLs decreased 58% and our average sales price for natural gas decreased 60% between periods.

Lease Operating Expenses . Our lease operating expenses (“LOE”) during the first quarter of 201 6 were $114 million, a $52 million de crease over the same period in 201 5 . This decrease was primarily due to a $26 million decline in the costs of oilfield goods and services resulting from cost reduction measures we have implemented as well as the general downturn in the oil and gas industry , $21 million of lower LOE attributable to properties that we divested in 2015, and a reduction in well workover activity between periods. Workovers decreased from $ 15 million in the first quarter of 2015 to $ 10 million in the first quarter of 201 6 , primarily due to a reduction in well workover activity at our EOR project at North Ward Estes.

Our lease operating expenses on a BOE basis also decreased when comparing the first quarter of 201 6 to the same 201 5 period. LOE per BOE amounted to $8.56 during the first quarter of 201 6 , which represents a decrease of $2.51 per BOE (or 23% ) from the first quarter of 201 5 . This decrease was mainly due to the declining costs of goods and services in the industry, the impact of property divestitures and lower well workover costs , as discussed above, partially offset by lower overall production volumes between periods. The properties sold during 2015 consisted mainly of mature oil and gas producing properties with LOE per BOE rates that were higher than our overall blended corporate rate.

Production Taxes . Our production taxes during the first quarter of 201 6 were $26 million, a n $18 million decrease over the same period in 201 5 , which decrease was primarily due to lower oil, NGL and natural gas sales between periods. Our production taxes, however, are generally calculated as a percentage of net sales revenue before the effects of hedging, and this percentage on a company-wide basis was 8.9% and 8.5% for the first quarter of 201 6 and 201 5 , respectively.

Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization . Our depreciation, depletion and amortization (“DD&A”) expense increased $29 million in 201 6 as compared to the first quarter of 201 5 . The components of our DD&A expense were as follows (in thousands):







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

Depletion

$

306,611

$

272,301

Depreciation

2,102 2,026

Accretion of asset retirement obligations

3,579 9,192

Total

$

312,292

$

283,519

DD&A increased between periods primarily due to $ 34 million in higher depletion expense. This increase was mainly attributable to a $ 72 million increase in expense related to a higher depletion rate between periods, which was partially offset by a $38 million de crease due to lower overall production volumes during the first quarter of 201 6 . On a BOE basis, our overall DD&A r ate of $23.38 for the first quarter of 201 6 was 24% higher than the rate of $18.87 for the same period in 201 5 . The primary factor s contributing to this higher DD&A rate we re $1.7 billion in drilling and development expenditures during the past twelve months as well as decreases to proved and proved developed reserves over the last twelve months primarily attributable to lower average oil and natural gas prices used to calculate our reserves, as well as property divestitures in 2015 .

Exploration and Impairment . Our exploration and impairment costs de creased $45 m illion for the first quarter of 201 6 as compared to the same period in 201 5 . The components of our exploration and impairment expense w ere as follows (in thousands):







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

Exploration

$

20,519

$

54,507

Impairment

14,972 26,417

Total

$

35,491

$

80,924

Exploration costs de creased $ 34 million during the first quarter of 201 6 as compared to the same period in 201 5 primarily due to lower rig termination fees incurred between periods . Rig termination fees amounted to $14 million during the first quarter of 2016 as compared to $43 million during the first quarter of 2015.

Impairment expense for the first quarter of 2016 and 2015 primarily related to the amortization of leasehold costs associated with individually insignificant unproved properties, and such amortization resulted in impairment expense of $15 million during the first quarter of 2016 as compared to $25 million for the first quarter of 2015. This decrease in leasehold amortization in 2016 is primarily due to $49 million of impairment s to undeveloped acreage costs in 2015 for leases where we had no current or future plans to drill.

General and Administrative . We report general and administrative (“G&A”) expenses net of third-party reimbursements and internal allocations. The components of our G&A expenses were as follows (in thousands):







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

General and administrative expenses

$

77,334

$

85,840

Reimbursements and allocations

(32,538) (41,860)

General and administrative expenses, net

$

44,796

$

43,980

G&A expense s before reimb ursements and allocations de creased $9 million during the first quarter of 201 6 as compared to the same period in 201 5 primarily due to savings realized as a result of cost reduction measures we have implemented , as well as the impact of property divestitures during 2015 . The de crease in reimbursements and allocations for the first quarter of 201 6 was the result of a lower number of field workers on Whiting-operated properties due to reduced drilling activity over the past twelve months and property divestitures during 2015 .

Our general and administrative expenses on a BOE basis, however, increased when comparing the first quarter of 2016 to the same 2015 period. G&A expense per BOE amounted to $3.35 during the first quarter of 2016, which represents an increase of $0.42 per BOE (or 14% ) from the first quarter of 2015. This increase was mainly due to lower overall production volumes between periods, partially offset by savings realized as a result of our cost reduction measures.

Interest Expense . The components of our interest expense were as follows (in thousands):







Three Months Ended



March 31,



2016

2015

Notes

$

52,313

$

61,059

Credit agreement

7,868 12,828

Amortization of debt issue costs, discounts and premiums

21,369 1,999

Other

412 5

Capitalized interest

(55) (1,634)

Total

$

81,907

$

74,257

The increase in interest expen se of $8 million between periods was mainly attributable to an increase in amortization of debt issue costs, discounts and premiums, partially offset by lower interest costs incurred on our notes and our credit agreement during the first quarter of 201 6 as compared to the first quarter of 201 5 . The increase in amortization of debt issue costs, discounts and premiums of $19 million is primarily due to amortization of the discount on the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes issued in March 2015, as well as a $6 million non-cash charge for the acceleration of unamortized debt issuance costs in connection with the reduction of the aggregate commitments under our credit agreement in March 2016 . The $9 million de crease in note interest was due to amounts incurred during 2015 on the $1.6 billion of Kodiak N otes we assumed as part of the Kodiak Acquisition , all of which were subsequently repurchased during 2015. This decrease in interest expense was partially offset by our March 2015 issuance of $ 1,250 m illion of 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2020 and $750 million of 6.25% Senior Notes due 2023 . I nterest expense on our credit agreement decreased $5 million in 201 6 due to a lower amount of average borrowings outstanding under this facility between periods .

Our weighted average debt outstanding during the first quarter of 201 6 was $ 5.6 billion versus $ 6.0 billion for the first quarter of 201 5 . Our weighted average effective cash interest rate was 4.3 % during the first quarter of 201 6 compared to 4.9 % for the first quarter of 201 5 .

(Gain) Loss on Extinguishment of Debt. During the first quarter of 2016, we exchanged $477 million aggregate principal amount of our senior notes and senior subordinated notes for the same aggregate principal amount of the New Convertible Notes . As a result of the exchange, we recognized a $91 million gain on extinguishment of debt, which included a $4 million non-cash charge for the acceleration of unamortized debt issuance costs and debt premium on the original notes. During the first quarter of 2015, we repurchased $ 747 m illion aggregate principal amount of the Kodiak Notes then outstanding . As a result of the repurchase, we recognized a $ 6 million loss on extinguishment of debt, which consisted of a $ 7 million cash charge related to the redemption premium on the Kodiak Notes, partially offset by a $2 million non-cash credit related to the acceleration of unamortized debt premiums on such notes . Refer to the “Long-Term Debt” footnote in the notes to consolidated financial statements for more information.

Derivative (Gain) Loss, Net. O ur commodity derivative contracts and embedded derivatives are marked-to-market each quarter with fair value gains and losses recognized immediately in earnings as derivative (gain) loss, net. Cash flow, however, is only impacted to the extent that settlements under these contracts result in making or receiving a paym ent to or from the counterparty. Derivative (gain) loss, net amounted to a loss of $5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 , which consisted of a $22 million fair value loss on embedded derivative s , partially offset by a $17 million gain on commodity derivative contracts resulting from the downward shift in the futures curve of forecasted commodity prices (“forward price curve”) for crude oil from January 1, 2016 to March 31, 2016. Derivative (gain) loss, net for the three months ended March 31, 2015 resulted in a gain on commodity derivative contracts of $10 million mainly due to the less significant downward sh ift in the same forward price curve from January 1, 201 5 (or the 201 5 date on which prior year contracts were entered into) to March 31 , 201 5 .

See Item 3, “Quantitative and Qualitativ e Disclosures about Market Risk ” , for a list of our outstanding derivatives as of April 26 , 201 6 .

Income Tax Benefit . Income tax benefit for the first quarter of 2016 totaled $65 million as compared to a benefit of $54 million for the first quarter of 2015, an increase of $11 million that was mainly related to $77 million in higher pre-tax loss between periods.

Our effective tax rates for the periods ending March 31, 2016 and 2015 differ from the U.S. statutory income tax rate primarily due to the effects of state income taxes and permanent taxable differences. Our overall effective tax rate decreased from 33.6% for the first quarter of 2015 to 27.5% for the first quarter of 201 6 . This de crease is mainly the result of permanent tax differences associated with the New Convertible Notes issued in March 2016.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Overvie w . At March 31, 2016 , we had $ 1 million of cash on hand and $ 4.6 billion of equity, while at December 31, 2015 , we had $ 16 million of cash on hand and $ 4.8 billion of equity.

One of the primary sources of variability in our cash flows from operating activities is commodity price volatility, which we partially mitigate through the use of commodity hedge contracts. Oil accounted for 75% and 81 % of our total production in the first quarters of 201 6 and 201 5, respectively . As a result, our operating cash flows are more sensitive to fluctuations in oil prices than they are to fluctuations in NGL or natural gas prices. As of April 26 , 201 6 , we had derivative contracts covering the sale of approximately 55% of our forecasted oil production volumes for the remainder of 201 6 . For a list of all of our outstanding derivatives as of April 26, 2016, see Item 3, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk”.

During the first quarter of 201 6 , we generated $ 46 million of cash provided by operating activities, a de crease of $ 156 million over the same period in 201 5 . Cash provided by operating activities de creased primarily due to lower crude oil production volumes and lower realized sales prices for oil , NGLs and natural gas in the first quarter of 201 6. These negative factors were partially offset by higher NGL and natural gas production volumes and an increase in cash settlements received on our derivative contracts, as well as lower lease operating expenses, exploration costs, production taxes and cash interest expense d uring the first quarter of 201 6 as compared to the same period in 201 5 . Refer to “Results of Operations” for more information on the impact of volumes and prices on revenues and for more information on increases and decreases in certain expenses between periods .

During the first quarter of 201 6 , cash flows from operating activities and cash on hand plus $200 million in net borrowings under our credit agreement were used to finance $ 261 m illion of drilling and development expenditures .

Exploration and Development Expenditures . The following chart details our exploration and development expenditures incurred by region (in thousands):

We continually evaluate our capital needs and compare them to our capital resources. Our 201 6 exploration and development (“E&D”) budget is $ 500 m illion, which we expect to fund substantially with net cash provided by our operating activities, proceeds from property divestitures and, if necessary, borrowings under our credit facility . The overall budget represents a substantial decrease from the $ 2.3 billion we incurred on E&D expenditures during 201 5 . This reduced capital budget is in response to the significantly lower crude oil prices experienced during 2015 and continuing into 2016 and our plan to more closely align our capital spending with cash flows generated from operations, including our plan to suspend completion operations at our Redtail field beginning in the second quarter of 2016 . We expect to allocate $ 440 m illion of our 201 6 budget to exploration and development activity , and the remainder will be allocated to facilities , drilling rig termination fees and undeveloped acreage purchases . We plan to incur the majority of our budgeted E&D expenditures during the first half of 2016 as we complete projects that were initiated in 2015 and wind down our completion operations. We currently anticipate that our E&D expenditures will total approximately $80 million per quarter during the second half of 2016. We believe that should additional attractive acquisition opportunities arise or E&D expenditures exceed $ 500 m illion, we will be able to finance additional capital expenditures with borrowings under our credit agreement, agreements with industry partners or divestitures of certain oil and gas property interests. Our level of E&D expenditures is largely discretionary, and the amount of funds we devote to any particular activity may increase or decre ase significantly depending on commodity prices, cash flows , available opportunities and development results, among other factors. We believe that we have sufficient liquidity and capital resources to execute our business plan over the next 12 months and for the foreseeable future. With our expected cash flow streams, commodity price hedging strategies, current liquidity levels (including availability under our credit agreement) , access to debt and equity markets and flexibility to modify future capital expenditure programs, we expect to be able to fund all planned capital programs and debt repayments, comply with our debt covenants, and meet other obligations that may arise from our oil and gas operations.

Credit Agreement . Whiting Oil and Gas, our wholly-owned subsidiary, has a credit agreement with a syndicate of banks that as of March 31, 2016 had a borrowing base of $4.0 billion, with aggregate commitments of $ 2 .5 billion. As of March 31, 2016 , we had $1.5 billion of available borrowing capacity, which was net of $1 billion in borrowings and $2 million in letters of credit outstanding.

On March 25, 2016, we entered into an amendment to our existing credit agreement and related guaranty and collateral agreement in connection with the May 1, 2016 regular borrowing base redetermination that, among other things, (i) decreased our borrowing base under the facility from $4.0 billion to $2.75 billion, effective May 1, 2016, (ii) reduced our aggregate commitments under the credit agreement from $3.5 billion to $2.5 billion, (iii) reduced our maximum letter of credit commitment amount from $100 million to $50 million, (iv) increased the applicable margin based on the borrowing base utilization percentage by 50 basis points per annum, (v) increased the commitment fee to 50 basis points per annum, (vi) permits us and certain of our subsidiaries to issue second lien indebtedness up to $1.0 billion subject to various conditions and limitations, (vii) increased our permitted ratio of total senior secured debt to the last four quarters’ EBITDAX (as defined in the credit agreement) from less than 2.5 to 1.0 to less than 3.0 to 1.0 during the Interim Covenant Period, as defined below, and (viii) permits us and certain of our subsidiaries to dispose of our respective ownership interests in certain gas gathering and processing plants located in North Dakota without reducing the borrowing base.

The borrowing base under the credit agreement is determined at the discretion of the lenders, based on the collateral value of our proved reserves that have been mortgaged to such lenders, and is subject to regular redeterminations on May 1 and November 1 of each year, as well as special redeterminations described in the credit agreement, in each case which may reduce the amount of the borrowing bas e. Because oil and gas prices are principal inputs into the valuation of our reserves, if current and projected oil and gas prices remain at their current levels for a prolonged period or further decline, our borrowing base could be reduced at the next redetermination date , which is scheduled for November 1, 2016, or during future redeterminations. Upon a redetermination of our borrowing base, either on a periodic or special redetermination date, if borrowings in excess of the revised borrowing capacity were outstanding, we could be forced to immediately repay a portion of our debt outstanding under the credit agreement.

A portion of the revolving credit facility in an aggr egate amount not to exceed $ 50 million may b e used to issue letters of credit for the account of Whiting Oil and Gas or other designated subsidiaries of ours. As of March 31, 2016 , $48 million was available for additional letters of credit under the agreement.

The credit agreement provides for interest only payments until December 2019, when the credit agreement expires and all outstanding borrowings are due. Interest under the revolving credit facility accrues at our option at either (i) a base rate for a base rate loan plus the margin in the table below, where the base rate is defined as the greatest of the prime rate, the federal funds rate plus 0.5% per

annum, or an adjusted LIBOR rate plus 1.0% per annum, or (ii) an adjusted LIBOR rate for a Eurodollar loan plus the margin in the table below. Additionally, we also incur commitment fees as set forth in the table below on the unused portion of the aggregate commitments of the lenders under the revolving credit facility.







Applicable

Applicable



Margin for Base

Margin for

Commitment

Ratio of Outstanding Borrowings to Borrowing Base

Rate Loans

Eurodollar Loans

Fee

Less than 0.25 to 1.0

1.00%

2.00%

0.50%

Greater than or equal to 0.25 to 1.0 but less than 0.50 to 1.0

1.25%

2.25%

0.50%

Greater than or equal to 0.50 to 1.0 but less than 0.75 to 1.0

1.50%

2.50%

0.50%

Greater than or equal to 0.75 to 1.0 but less than 0.90 to 1.0

1.75%

2.75%

0.50%

Greater than or equal to 0.90 to 1.0

2.00%

3.00%

0.50%

The credit agreement contains restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, sell assets, make loans to others, make investments, enter into mergers, enter into hedging contracts, incur liens and engage in certain other transactions without the prior consent of our lenders. Except for limited exceptions, the credit agreement also restricts our ability to make any dividend payments or distributio ns on our common stock. These restrictions apply to all of our restricted subsidiaries (as defined in the credit agreement) . The amended credit agreement requires us, as of the last day of any quarter, to maintain the following ratios (as defined in the credit agreement): (i) a consolidated current assets to consolidated current liabilities ratio (which includes an add back of the available borrowing capacity under the credit agreement) of not less th an 1.0 to 1.0 , (ii) a total senior secured debt to the last four quarters’ EBITDAX ratio of less than 3.0 to 1.0 during the Interim Covenant Period (defined below), and thereafter a total debt to EBITDAX ratio of less than 4.0 to 1.0, and (iii) a ratio of the last four quarters’ EBITDAX to consolidated interest charges of not less than 2.25 to 1.0 during the Interim Covenant Period. Under the credit agreement, the “Interim Covenant Period” is defined as the period from June 30, 2015 until the earlier of (a) April 1, 2018 or (b) the commencement of an investment-grade debt rating period (as defined in the credit agreement). We were in compliance with our covenants under the credit agreement as of March 31, 2016 . However, a substantial or extended decline in oil, NGL or natural gas prices may adversely affect our ability to comply with these covenants in the future.

For further information on the loan security related to our credit agreement, refer to the “ Long-Term Debt ” footnote in the notes to consolidated financial statements.

Senior Notes and Senior Subordinated Notes . In March 2015, we issued at par $750 million of 6.25% Senior Notes due April 2023 (the “2023 Senior Notes”). In September 2013, we issued at par $1.1 b illion of 5% Senior Notes due March 2019 (the “2019 Senior Notes”) and $800 million of 5.75% Senior Notes due March 2021, and also in September 2013, we issued at 101% of par an additional $400 million of 5.75% Senior Notes due March 2021 (collectively the “2021 Senior Notes”) . In Septemb er 2010, we issued at par $350 million of 6.5% Senior Subordinated Notes due October 2018 (the “2018 Senior Subordinated Notes” and together with the 2023 Senior Notes, the 2021 Senior Notes and the 2019 Senior Notes the “Nonconvertible Whiting Notes”) .

Exchange of Senior Notes and Senior Subordinated Notes for Convertible Notes . O n March 23, 2016, we exchanged $477 million aggregate principal amount of our senior notes and senior subordinated notes, consisting of (i) $49 million aggregate principal amount of our 2018 Senior Subordinated Notes, (ii) $97 million aggregate principal amount of our 2019 Senior Notes, (iii) $15 2 million aggregate principal amount of our 2021 Senior Notes , and (iv) $179 million aggregate principal amount of our 2023 Senior Notes , for (i) $49 million aggregate principal amount of new 6.5% Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes due 2018 (the “2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes”), (ii) $97 million aggregate principal amount of new 5 % Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (the “2019 Convertible Senior Note s”), (iii) $152 million aggregate p rincipal amount of new 5.75 % Convertible Senior Notes due 2021 (the “202 1 Convertible Senior Notes”), and (iv) $179 million aggregate principal amount of new 6.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2023 (the “2023 Convertible Senior Notes” and, together with the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes, the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes and the 2021 Convertible Senior Notes, the “New Convertible Notes”). The redemption provisions, covenants, interest payments and maturity terms applicable to each series of New Convertible Notes are substantially identical to those applicable to the corresponding series of the Whiting Senior Notes and the 2018 Senior Subordinated Notes.

The New Convertible Notes are convertible, at the option of the holders, into shares of common stock at any time from the date of issuance up until the close of business on the earlier of (i) the fifth business day following the date of a mandatory conversion notice (see below for a discussion of the mandatory conversion terms), (ii) the business day immediately preceding the date of redemption, if we were to elect to redeem all or a portion of the New Convertible Notes prior to maturity, or (iii) the business day immediately preceding the maturity date. In addition, (i) if a holder exercises its right to convert on or prior to September 23, 2016, such holder will receive an early conversion cash payment in an amount equal to 18 months of interest payable on the applicable series of notes, (ii) if a holder exercises its right to convert after September 23, 2016 but on or prior to March 23, 2017, such holder will receive an early conversion cash payment in an amount equal to 12 months of interest payable on the applicable series of notes, or (iii) if a holder

exercises its right to convert after March 23, 2017 but on or prior to September 23, 2017, such holder will receive an early conversion cash payment in an amount equal to six months of interest payable on the applicable series of notes. Upon exercise of this option, the holder will also be entitled to cash payment of all accrued and unpaid interest through the conversion date.

The initial conversion rate for the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes, the 2021 Convertible Senior Notes and the 2023 Convertible Senior Notes is 86.9565 common shares per $1,000 principal amount of the notes (representing an initial conversion price of $11.50 per share), and the initial conversion rate for the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes is 90.9091 common shares per $1,000 principal amount of the notes (representing an initial conversion price of $11.00 per share). Each initial conversion rate is subject to customary adjustments if certain share transactions were to be initiated by us.

We have the right to mandatorily convert the New Convertible Notes, in whole or in part, if the volume weighted average price (as defined in the applicable indentures governing the New Convertible Notes) of our common stock exceeds 89.13% of the applicable conversion price of the 2018 Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes, the 2021 Convertible Senior Notes and the 2023 Convertible Senior Notes and 93.18% of the applicable conversion price of the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes (each representing an initial mandatory conversion trigger price of $10.25 per share) for at least 20 trading days during a 30 consecutive trading day period. No early conversion or accrued and unpaid interest payments will be made upon a mandatory conversion. As of March 31, 2016 , no mandatory conversion triggers of the New Convertible Notes had been met and no holders of the notes had exercised their conversion options.

2020 Convertible Senior Notes. In March 2015, we issued at par $1,250 million of 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due April 2020 (the “2020 Convertible Senior Notes”).

We have the option to settle conversions of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes with cash, shares of common stock or a combination of cash and common stock at our election. Our intent is to settle the principal amount of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes in cash upon conversion. Prior to January 1, 2020, the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes will be convertible at the holder’s option only under the following circumstances: (i) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ending on June 30, 2015 (and only during such calendar quarter), if the last reported sale price of our common stock for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during the period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion price on each applicable trading day; (ii) during the five business day period after any five consecutive trading day period (the “measurement period”) in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes for each trading day of the measurement period is less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of our common stock and the conversion rate on each such trading day; or (iii) upon the occurrence of specified corporate events. On or after January 1, 2020, the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes will be convertible at any time until the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the April 1, 2020 maturity date of the notes. The notes will be convertible at an initial conversion rate of 25.6410 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $39.00. The conversion rate will be subject to adjustment in some events. In addition, following certain corporate events that occur prior to the maturity date, we will increase, in certain circumstances, the conversion rate for a holder who elects to convert its 2020 Convertible Senior Notes in connection with such corporate event. As of March 31, 2016 , none of the contingent conditions allowing holders of the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes to convert these notes had been met.

The indentures governing the Nonconvertible Whiting Notes and the New Convertible Notes restrict us from incurring additional indebtedness, subject to certain exceptions, unless our fixed charge coverage ratio (as defined in the indentures) is at least 2.0 to 1. If we were in violation of this covenant , then we may not be able to incur additional indebtedness, including under Whiting Oil and Gas’ credit agreement. Additionally, the se indentures contain restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to, among other things, pay cash dividends, make certain other restricted payments, redeem or repurchase our capital stock or our subordinated debt, make investments or issue preferred stock, sell assets, consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of the assets of ours and our restricted subsidiaries taken as a whole, and enter into hedging contracts. These covenants may potentially limit the discretion of our management in certain respects. We were in compliance with these covenants as o f March 31, 2016 . However, a substantial or extended decline in oil, NGL or natural gas prices may adversely affect our ability to comply with these cove nants in the future.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

Schedule of Contractual Obligations . The following table summarizes our obligations and commitments as of March 31, 2016 to m ake future payments under certain contracts, aggregated by category of contractual obligation, for the time periods specified below. Th is table does not include amounts payable under contracts where we cannot predict with accuracy the amount and timing of such payments, including (i) any amounts we may be obligated to pay under our derivative contracts as such payments are dependent upon the price of crude oil in effect at the time of settlement, (ii) any penalties that may be incurred for underdelivery under our physical delivery contracts and (iii) cash payments that may be made to holders upon conversion of our New Convertible Notes . For further information on these contracts refer to the “Derivative Financial Instruments” footnote in the notes to consolidated financial

statements, “Delivery Commitments” in Item 2 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 201 5, and the “Long-Term Debt” footnote in the notes to consolidated financial statements .







Payments due by period



(in thousands)



Less than 1

More than 5

Contractual Obligations

Total

year

1-3 years

3-5 years

years

Long-term debt (1)

$

5,650,000

$

-

$

1,450,000

$

3,450,000

$

750,000

Cash interest expense on debt (2)

1,051,347 236,080 458,493 263,024 93,750

Asset retirement obligations (3)

162,254 9,235 18,285 18,617 116,117

Water disposal agreement (4)

144,198 10,702 35,494 40,635 57,367

Purchase obligations (5)

93,568 47,327 32,843 13,398

-

Pipeline transportation agreements (6)

120,280 13,456 28,410 27,177 51,237

Drilling rig contracts (7)

66,996 48,692 18,304

-

-

Leases (8)

27,871 7,841 14,612 5,418

-

Total

$

7,316,514

$

373,333

$

2,056,441

$

3,818,269

$

1,068,471

(1)

Long-term debt consists of the principal amounts of the Nonconvertible Whiting Notes, the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes and the New Convertible Notes as well as the outstanding borrowings under our credit agreement .

(2)

Cash interest expense on the Nonconvertible Whiting Notes is estimated assuming no principal repayment until the due dates of the instruments. Cash interest expense on the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes and the New Convertible Notes is estimated assuming no conversion prior to maturity. Cash interest expense on the credit agreement is estimated assuming no principal repayment until the December 2019 instrument due date and is estimated at a fixed interest rate of 2.7%.

(3)

Asset retirement obligations represent the present value of estimated amounts expected to be incurred in the future to plug and abandon oil and gas wells, remediate oil and gas properties and dismantle their related plants and facilities.

(4)

We have one water disposal agreement which expires in 2024, whereby we have contracted for the transportation and disposal of the produced water from our Redtail field. Under the terms of the agreement, we are obligated to provide a minimum volume of produced water or else pay for any deficiencies at the price stipulated in the contract. The obligations reported above represent our minimum financial commitments pursuant to the terms of this contract, however, our actual expenditures under this contract may exceed the minimum commitments presented above.

(5)

We have three take-or-pay purchase agreements, of which one agreement expires in 201 6, one expires in 2017 and one expire s in 20 20 . One of these agreements contains commitments to buy certain volumes of CO 2 for use in our North Ward Estes EOR project in Texas. Under the remaining two take-or-pay agreements, we have committed to buy certain volumes of water for use in the fracture stimulation process on wells we complete in our Redtail field. Under the terms of these agreements, we are obligated to purchase a minimum volume of CO 2 or water, as the case may be, or else pay for any deficiencies at the price stipulated in the contract. The purchasing obligations reported above represent our minimum financial commitments pursuant to the terms of these contracts, however, our actual expenditures under these contracts may exceed the minimum commitments presented above.

(6)

We have three ship-or-pay agreements with two different suppliers, one expiring in 2017 and two expiring in 2026 , whereby we have committed to transport a minimum daily volume of crude oil, CO 2 or water, as the case may be, via certain pipelines or else pay for any deficiencies at a price stipulated in the contracts. In addition, we have two pipeline transportation agreements with one sup plier, expiring in 2024 and 2025, whereby we have committed to pay fixed monthly reservation fees on dedicated pipelines from our Redtail field for natural gas and NGL transportation capacity, plus a variable charge based on actual transportation volumes.

(7)

As of March 31 , 201 6 , we had five drilling rigs under long-term contract , including one that was on standby. All of these agreements expire in 2017. As of March 31, 2016, e arly termination of these contracts would require termination penalties of $ 57 million, which would be in lieu of paying the remaining drilling commitments under these contracts.

(8)

We lease 222,900 square feet of administrative office space in Denver, Colorado under an operating lease arrangement expiring in 2019, 47,900 square feet of office space in Midland, Texas expiring in 2020, 36,500 square feet of office space in Dickinson, North Dakota expiring i n 2020 , and 36,300 square feet of additional administrative office space in Denver, Colorado assumed in the Kodiak Acquisition expiring in 2016 .

Based on current oil and natural gas prices and anticipated levels of production, we believe that the estimated net cash generated from operations, together with cash on hand and amounts available under our credit agreement, will be adequate to meet future liquidity needs, including satisfying our financial obligations and funding our operati ng, development and exploration activities.

New Accounting Pronouncements

For further information on the effects of recently adopted accounting pronouncements and the potential effects of new accounting pronouncements, refer to the “ Adopted and Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements ” footnote in the notes to consolidated financial statements.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Information regarding critical accounting policies and estimates is contained in Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10 ‑K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 . The following is a material update to such critical accounting policies and estimates:

Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activity. All derivative instruments are recorded i n the consolidated financial statements at fair value, other than derivative instruments that meet the “normal purchase normal sale” exclusion or other derivative scope exceptions. We do not currently apply hedge accounting to any of our outstanding derivative instruments, and as a result, all changes in derivative fair values are recognized currently in earnings.

We use third-party valuation specialists to determine the fair value of our derivative instruments measured at fair value. We review these valuations, including the related model inputs and assumptions, and analyze changes in fair value measurements between periods. We corroborate such inputs, calculations and fair value changes using various methodologies, and review unobservable inputs for reasonableness utilizing relevant information from other published sources. W hen available, we utilize counterparty valuations to assess the reasonableness of our valuations. The values we report in our financial statements change as the assumptions used in these valuations are revised to reflect changes in market conditions (particularly those for oil and natural gas futures) or other factors, many of which are beyond our control.

We periodically enter into commodity derivative contracts to manage our exposure to oil and natural gas price volatility. We primarily utilize costless collars and swaps contracts, which are generally placed with major financial institutions, as well as crude oil sales and delivery contracts. We use hedging to help ensure that we have adequate cash flow to fund our capital programs and manage returns on our acquisitions and drilling programs. Our decision on the quantity and price at which we choose to hedge our production is based in part on our view of current and future market conditions. While the use of these hedging arrangements limits the downside risk of adverse price movements, it may also limit future revenues from favorable price movements. The use of hedging transactions also involves the risk that the counterparties will be unable to meet the financial terms of such transactions. We evaluate the ability of our counterparties to perform at the inception of a hedging relationship and on a periodic basis as appropriate.

We value our costless collars and swaps using industry-standard models that consider various assumptions, including quoted forward prices for commodities, time value, volatility factors and contractual prices for the underlying instruments, as well as other relevant economic measures. We value our long-term crude oil sales and delivery contracts based on an income approach, which considers various assumptions, including quoted forward prices for commodities, market differentials for crude oil and U.S. Treasury rates. The discount rates used in the fair values of these instruments include a measure of nonperformance risk by the counterparty or us, as appropriate.

In addition, we evaluate the terms of our convertible debt and other contracts, if any, to determine whether they contain embedded components, including embedded conversion options, which are required to be bifurcated and accounted for separately as derivative financial instruments.

We value the embedded derivatives related to our convertible notes using a binomial lattice model which considers various inputs including (i) our common stock price, (ii) risk-free rates based on U.S. Treasury rates, (iii) recovery rates in the event of default , (iv) default intensity, and (v) volatility of our common stock .

Effects of Inflation and Pricing

During 2015 and continuing into early 2016, w e experienced de creased costs due to a decrease in demand for oil field products and services in response to the sustained depressed commodity price environment . The oil and gas industry is very cyclical, and the demand for goods and services of oil field companies, suppliers and others associated with the industry puts extreme pressure on the economic stability and pricing structure within the industry. Typically, as prices for oil and natural gas increase, so do all associated costs. Conversely, in a period of declining prices, associated cost declines are likely to lag and not adjust downward in proportion to prices. Material changes in prices also impact our current revenue stream, estimates of future reserves, borrowing base calculations of

bank loans, depletion expense, impairment assessments of oil and gas properties and values of properties in purchase and sale transactions. Material changes in prices can impact the value of oil and gas companies and their ability to raise capital, borrow money and retain personnel. While we do not currently expect business costs to materially increase in the near term , higher prices for oil and natural gas could result in increases in the costs of materials, services and personnel.

Forward-Looking Statements

This report contains statements that we believe to be “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. All statements other than historical facts, including, without limitation, statements regarding our future financial position, business strategy, projected revenues, earnings, costs, capital expenditures and debt levels, and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. When used in this r eport, words such as we “expect ” , “intend ” , “plan ” , “estimate ” , “anticipate ” , “believe” or “should” or the negative thereof or variations thereon or similar terminology are generally intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, such statements.

These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: declines in , or extended periods of low oil, NGL or natural gas prices; our level of success in exploration, development and production activities; risks related to our level of indebtedness , ability to comply with debt covenants and periodic redeterminations of the borrowing base under our credit agreement; impacts to financial statements as a result of impairment write-downs; our ability to successfully complete asset dispositions and the risks related thereto; revisions to reserve estimates as a result of changes in commodity prices, regulation and other factors; adverse weather conditions that may negatively impact development or production activities; the timing of our exploration and development expenditures; inaccuracies of our reserve estimates or our assumptions underlying them; risks relating to any unforeseen liabilities of ours; our ability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to meet the internally funded portion of our capital expenditures budget; our ability to obtain external capital to finance exploration and development operations; federal and state initiatives relating to the regulation of hydraulic fracturing and air emissions ; the potential impact of federal debt reduction initiatives and tax reform legislation being considered by the U.S. Federal Government that could have a negative effect on the oil and gas industry; unforeseen underperformance of or liabilities associated with acquired properties; the impacts of hedging on our results of operations; failure of our properties to yield oil or gas in commercially viable quantities; availability of, and risks associated with, transport of oil and gas; our ability to drill producing wells on undeveloped acreage prior to its lease expiration; shortages of or delays in obtaining qualified personnel or equipment, including drilling rigs and completion services; uninsured or underinsured losses resulting from our oil and gas operations; our inability to access oil and gas markets due to market conditions or operational impediments; the impact and costs of compliance with laws and regulations governing our oil and gas operations; our ability to replace our oil and natural gas reserves; any loss of our senior management or technical personnel; competition in the oil and gas industry; cyber security attacks or failures of our telecommunication systems; and other risks described under the caption “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10 ‑K for the period ended December 31, 2015 . We assume no obligation, and disclaim any duty, to update the forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Item 3 . Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Commodity Price Risk

The price we receive for our oil and gas production heavily influences our revenue, profitability, access to capital and future rate of growth. Crude oil and natural gas are commodities, and therefore, their prices are subject to wide fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in supply and demand. Historically, the markets for oil and gas have been volatile, and these markets will likely continue to be volatile in the future. Based on prod uction for the first quarter of 201 6 , our income (loss) before income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2016 would have moved up or down $27 million for each 10% change in oil prices per Bbl , $1 million for each 10% change in NGL prices per Bbl and $1 million for each 10% change in natural gas prices per Mcf.

We periodically enter into derivative contracts to achieve a more predictable c ash flow by reducing our exposure to oil and natural gas price volatility. Our derivative contracts have traditionally been costless collars and swap contracts , although we evaluate and have entered into other forms of derivative instruments as well. Currently, we do not apply hedge accounting, and therefore all changes in commodity derivative fair values are recorded immediately to earnings.

Commodity Derivative Contracts

Crude Oil Costless Collars. The col lared hedges shown in the table below have the effect of providing a protective floor while allowing us to share in upward pricing movement s. The three-way collars, however, do not provide complete protection against declines in crude oil prices due to the fact that when the market price falls below the sub-floor, the minimum price we would receive would be NYMEX plus the difference between the floor and the sub-floor. W hile these hedges are designed to reduce our exposure to price decreases, they also have the effect of limiting the benefit of price increases above the ceiling. The fair value of these commodity derivative instruments at March 31, 2016, was a net asset of $151 million. A hypothetical upward or downward shift of 10% per Bbl in the NYMEX forward curve for crude oil as of March 31, 2016 would cause a decrease of $35 million or an increase of $ 32 million, respectively, in this fair value asset .

Our outstanding hedges as of April 26 , 201 6 are summarized below:





Derivative

Monthly Volume

Weighted Average

Instrument

Commodity

Period

(Bbl)

NYMEX Sub-Floor/Floor/Ceiling

Three-way collars (1)

Crude oil

04/2016 to 06/2016

1,400,000

$43.75/$53.75/$74.40



Crude oil

07/2016 to 09/2016

1,400,000

$43.75/$53.75/$74.40



Crude oil

10/2016 to 12/2016

1,400,000

$43.75/$53.75/$74.40



Crude oil

01/2017 to 03/2017

150,000

$30.00/$40.00/$59.02



Crude oil

04/2017 to 06/2017

150,000

$30.00/$40.00/$59.02



Crude oil

07/2017 to 09/2017

150,000

$30.00/$40.00/$59.02



Crude oil

10/2017 to 12/2017

150,000

$30.00/$40.00/$59.02

Collars

Crude oil

04/2016 to 06/2016

250,000

$51.00/$63.48



Crude oil

07/2016 to 09/2016

250,000

$51.00/$63.48



Crude oil

10/2016 to 12/2016

250,000

$51.00/$63.48



Crude oil

01/2017 to 03/2017

250,000

$53.00/$70.44



Crude oil

04/2017 to 06/2017

250,000

$53.00/$70.44



Crude oil

07/2017 to 09/2017

250,000

$53.00/$70.44



Crude oil

10/2017 to 12/2017

250,000

$53.00/$70.44

(1)

A three-way collar is a combination of options: a sold call, a purchased put and a sold put. The sold call establishes a maximum price (ceiling) we will receive for the volumes under contract. The purchased put establishes a minimum price (floor), unless the market price falls below the sold put (sub-floor), at which point the minimum price would be NYMEX plus the difference between the purchased put and the sold put strike price.

In March 2016, we issued convertible notes (the “New Convertible Notes”) that contain debt holder conversion options which we determined were not clearly and closely related to the debt host contracts, and we therefore bifurcated these embedded features and reflected them at fair value in the consolidated financial statements. Fluctuations in the trading price of our common stock can significantly impact the fair values of these embedded derivatives, and such changes in fair value are recorded in earnings each period.

Refer to the “Long-Term Debt” and “Fair Value Measurements” footnotes in the notes to consolidated financial statements for more information on the material terms and fair values of the New Convertible Notes.

Interest Rate Risk

Our quantitative and qualitative disclosures about interest rate risk related to our credit agreement are included in Item 7A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 and have not materially changed since that report was filed.

In March 2015, we issued 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due April 2020 (the “2020 Convertible Notes”). As the interest rate on these notes is fixed at 1.25%, we are not subject to any direct risk of loss related to fluctuations in interest rates. However, changes in interest rates do affect the fair value of this debt instrument, which could impact the amount of gain or loss that we recognize in earnings upon conversion of the notes. Refer to the “Long-Term Debt” and “Fair Value Measurements” footnotes in the notes to consolidated financial statements for more information on the material terms and fair values of the 2020 Convertible Notes.

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures . In accordance with Rule 13a-15(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), our management evaluated, with the participation of our Chairman , President and Chief Executive Officer and our Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer , the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of March 31, 2016 . Based upon their evaluation of these disclosures controls and procedures, the Chairman , President and Chief Executive Officer and the Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer concluded that the disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of March 31, 2016 to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the Securities and Exchange Commission, and to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Changes in internal control over financial reporting . There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended March 31, 2016 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1 . Legal Proceedings

Whiting is subject to litigation claims and governmental and regulatory proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. While the outcome of these lawsuits and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, it is management’s opinion that the loss for any litigation matters and claims we are involved in that are reasonably possible to occur will not have a material adverse effect, individually or in the aggregate, on our consolidated financial position, cash flows or results of operations.

After the closing of the Kodiak Acquisition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) contacted us to discuss Kodiak’s responses to a June 2014 information request from the EPA under Section 114(a) of the Federal Clean Air Act, as amended (the “CAA”) . In addition, in July 2015 and March 2016 , we received information request s from the EPA under Section 114(a) of the CAA. The information requests relate to tank batteries used in our Williston Basin operations and our compliance with certain regulatory requirements at those locations for the control of air pollutant emissions from those facilities. We have responded to the EPA’s July 2015 information requests and are in the process of responding to the EPA’s March 2016 information request . To date, no formal federal or state enforcement action has been commenced in connection with this matter beyond receipt of the noted letters. Based upon past discussions with the EPA and the North Dakota Department of Health, w e anticipate that resolution of this matter will result in civil penalties of an undetermined amount and may require us to undertake corrective actions which may increase our development and/or operating costs. Given th is uncertainty, we are unable to predict the ultimate outcome of this matter at this time.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Risk factors relating to us are contained in Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10 ‑K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015. T he following is a material update to such risk factors:

Our convertible senior notes and our convertible senior subordinated notes may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

The market price of our common stock is likely to be influenced by our convertible senior notes and convertible senior subordinated notes . For example, the market price of our common stock could become more volatile and could be depressed by:

·

investors’ anticipation of the potential resale in the market of a substantial number of additional shares of our common stock received upon conversion of our convertible senior notes and convertible senior subordinated notes ;

·

possible sales of our common stock by investors who view our convertible senior notes and convertible senior subordinated notes as a more attractive means of equity participation in us than owning shares of our common stock; and

·

hedging or arbitrage trading activity that may develop involving our convertible senior notes , our convertible senior subordinated notes and our common stock.

Item 6 . Exhibits

The exhibits listed in the accompanying index to exhibits are filed as part of this Quarterly Report on Form 10 ‑Q.

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, on this 2 8 th day of April , 201 6 .





WHITING PETROLEUM CORPORATION







By

/s/ James J. Volker



James J. Volker



Chairman , President and Chief Executive Officer







By

/s/ Michael J. Stevens



Michael J. Stevens



Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer







By

/s/ Brent P. Jensen



Brent P. Jensen



Vice President , Finance and Treasurer

EXHIBIT INDEX



Exhibit

Number

Exhibit Description

(4.1)

Third Amendment to Sixth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement and First Amendment to Amended and Restated Guaranty and Collateral Agreement, dated as of March 25, 2016, among Whiting Petroleum Corporation, its subsidiary Whiting Oil and Gas Corporation, certain other subsidiaries of Whiting Petroleum Corporation, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as Administrative Agent, and the other agents and lenders party thereto [Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Whiting Petroleum Corporation’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 28, 2016 (File No. 001-31899)].

(4.2)

Senior Indenture, dated March 23, 2016, among Whiting Petroleum Corporation, the Guarantors and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as Trustee [Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Whiting Petroleum Corporation’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 23, 2016 (File No. 001-31899)].

(4.3)

First Supplemental Indenture, dated March 23, 2016, among Whiting Petroleum Corporation, the Guarantors and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as Trustee, creating the 5% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 [Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to Whiting Petroleum Corporation’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 23, 2016 (File No. 001-31899)].

(4.4)

Second Supplemental Indenture, dated March 23, 2016, among Whiting Petroleum Corporation, the Guarantors and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as Trustee, creating the 5.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2021 [Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.3 to Whiting Petroleum Corporation’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 23, 2016 (File No. 001-31899)].

(4.5)

Third Supplemental Indenture, dated March 23, 2016, among Whiting Petroleum Corporation, the Guarantors and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as Trustee, creating the 6.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2023 [Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.4 to Whiting Petroleum Corporation’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 23, 2016 (File No. 001-31899)].

(4.6)

Subordinated Indenture, dated March 23, 2016, among Whiting Petroleum Corporation, the Guarantors and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as Trustee [Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.5 to Whiting Petroleum Corporation’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 23, 2016 (File No. 001-31899)].

(4.7)

First Supplemental Indenture, dated March 23, 2016, among Whiting Petroleum Corporation, the Guarantors and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as Trustee, creating the 6.5% Senior Subordinated Convertible Notes due 2018 [Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.6 to Whiting Petroleum Corporation’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 23, 2016 (File No. 001-31899)].

(31.1)

Certification by the Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

(31.2)

Certification by the Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

(32.1)

Written Statement of the Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350.

(32.2)

Written Statement of the Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350.

(101)

The following materials from Whiting Petroleum Corporation’s Quarterly Report on Form 10 ‑Q for the quarter ended March 31 , 201 6 are filed herewith, formatted in XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language): (i) the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31 , 201 6 and December 31, 201 5 , (ii) the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three Months Ended March 31 , 201 6 and 201 5 , (iii) the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31 , 201 6 and 201 5 , (iv) the Consolidated Statements of Equity for the Three Months Ended March 31 , 201 6 and 201 5 and (v) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.