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FORM 10-Q

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number: 001-37885

Apptio, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Delaware

26-1175252

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

11100 NE 8th Street, Suite 600

Bellevue, WA

98004

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (866) 470-0320

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

☒ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒

As of October 26, 2017, 23,087,064 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock and 17,301,431 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock were outstanding, respectively.

Table of Contents

Page

PART I.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

1

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

1

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations

2

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

3

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

4

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

5

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

13

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

27

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

27

PART II.

OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

28

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

28

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

48

Item 6.

Exhibits

49

Exhibit Index

49

Signatures

50

i

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements.

Apptio, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

September 30,

December 31,

2017

2016

Assets

Current assets

Cash and cash equivalents

$

29,279

$

42,007

Short-term investments

106,249

36,741

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts

of $305 and $122

46,136

58,587

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

5,530

5,440

Total current assets

187,194

142,775

Long-term assets

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation

of $20,982 and $17,091

11,168

12,827

Long-term investments

38,446

Other long-term assets

944

734

Total assets

$

199,306

$

194,782

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

Current liabilities

Accounts payable

$

3,995

$

3,574

Accrued payroll and other expenses

14,568

14,073

Deferred revenue

96,609

97,885

Deferred rent

868

799

Capital leases

27

43

Total current liabilities

116,067

116,374

Long-term liabilities

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

3,602

2,254

Deferred rent, net of current portion

3,709

4,360

Capital leases, net of current portion

31

51

Asset retirement obligation

194

175

Total liabilities

123,603

123,214

Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)

Stockholders’ equity

Class A and Class B Common stock

4

4

Additional paid-in capital

294,848

271,982

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

(94

)

(94

)

Accumulated deficit

(219,055

)

(200,324

)

Total stockholders’ equity

75,703

71,568

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

$

199,306

$

194,782

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

1

Apptio, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

Revenue

Subscription

$

39,426

$

33,314

$

112,860

$

94,995

Professional services

7,570

7,313

23,292

21,254

Total revenue

46,996

40,627

136,152

116,249

Cost of revenue

Subscription

7,167

6,921

22,269

19,960

Professional services

6,763

7,068

21,599

19,780

Total cost of revenue

13,930

13,989

43,868

39,740

Gross profit

33,066

26,638

92,284

76,509

Operating expenses

Research and development

10,139

9,015

30,060

26,072

Sales and marketing

20,863

18,300

60,983

54,256

General and administrative

7,188

6,285

20,342

16,969

Total operating expenses

38,190

33,600

111,385

97,297

Loss from operations

(5,124

)

(6,962

)

(19,101

)

(20,788

)

Other income (expense)

Interest income (expense) and other, net

311

(1,312

)

811

(1,746

)

Foreign exchange gain (loss)

105

(367

)

173

(774

)

Loss before provision for income taxes

(4,708

)

(8,641

)

(18,117

)

(23,308

)

Provision for income taxes

(463

)

(114

)

(614

)

(328

)

Net loss

$

(5,171

)

$

(8,755

)

$

(18,731

)

$

(23,636

)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and

diluted

$

(0.13

)

$

(0.63

)

$

(0.48

)

$

(1.78

)

Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per share

attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

40,120

13,884

39,240

13,307

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

Apptio, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

Net loss

$

(5,171

)

$

(8,755

)

$

(18,731

)

$

(23,636

)

Other comprehensive loss

Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities

53

(3

)

(3

)

Total comprehensive loss

$

(5,118

)

$

(8,758

)

$

(18,731

)

$

(23,639

)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

Apptio, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

Cash flows from operating activities

Net loss

$

(18,731

)

$

(23,636

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

Depreciation and amortization

4,657

4,487

Amortization of premiums on investments

59

20

Loss on disposal of property and equipment

7

26

Stock-based compensation

11,667

6,902

Accretion of capitalized loan fees

18

127

Loss on extinguishment of debt

722

Remeasurement of preferred stock warrant liability

202

Foreign exchange gain

(173

)

Change in operating assets and liabilities

Accounts receivable

12,026

10,302

Prepaid expenses and other assets

3,260

(660

)

Accounts payable

635

1,648

Accrued expenses

(2,025

)

(2,442

)

Deferred revenue

72

535

Deferred rent

(596

)

(421

)

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

10,876

(2,188

)

Cash flows from investing activities

Purchases of property and equipment

(2,837

)

(3,518

)

Proceeds from sales of equipment

11

Proceeds from maturities of investments

35,075

6,245

Purchases of investments

(66,196

)

(10,826

)

Payments for security deposits

(23

)

(43

)

Net cash used in investing activities

(33,970

)

(8,142

)

Cash flows from financing activities

Proceeds from exercises of common stock options

8,948

1,000

Proceeds from purchases of stock under employee stock purchase plan

2,251

Proceeds from initial public offering, net of underwriting discounts

102,672

Payment of initial public offering costs

(243

)

(574

)

Proceeds from long-term debt

20,000

Principal payments on long-term debt

(20,000

)

Payment of debt prepayment fees

(200

)

Principal payments on capital lease obligations

(32

)

(33

)

Payment of capitalized loan fees

(248

)

Net cash provided by financing activities

10,924

102,617

Foreign currency effect on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

(558

)

(331

)

Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

(12,728

)

91,956

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

Beginning of period

42,007

19,756

End of period

$

29,279

$

111,712

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

4

Apptio, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

Note 1. Description of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Operations

Apptio, Inc., or the Company, was incorporated on October 2, 2007 and is headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. The Company develops and sells Technology Business Management, or TBM, solutions. The Company’s cloud-based platform and SaaS applications enable IT leaders to analyze, optimize and plan technology investments, and benchmark their financial and operational performance against peers. The Company operates primarily in North America, Europe and Australia.

Initial Public Offering

In September 2016, the Company completed an initial public offering, or IPO, in which the Company sold 6,900,000 shares of its newly-authorized Class A common stock at the initial price to public of $16.00 per share. The Company received net proceeds of $99.0 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses, from sales of its shares in the IPO. Immediately prior to the completion of the IPO, (1) all shares of common stock then outstanding were converted to Class B common stock on a one-for-one basis, (2) common stock warrants then outstanding were converted to warrants to purchase 47,893 shares of Class B common stock on a one-for-one basis, (3) a warrant to purchase 27,321 shares of convertible preferred stock was converted to a warrant to purchase 27,321 shares of Class B common stock, and (4) all shares of convertible preferred stock then outstanding were converted into 18,239,475 shares of the Company’s common stock on a one-for-one basis, and then reclassified as shares of Class B common stock. See Note 4 for further discussion of Class A and B common stock.

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, or GAAP, and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Therefore, these condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 filed with the SEC on February 17, 2017, or Form 10-K. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2016, included herein, was derived from the audited annual financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures including certain notes required by GAAP on an annual reporting basis.

In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to fairly state the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss and cash flows for the interim periods, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated for the full year 2017 or any future period.

Principles of Consolidation

The condensed consolidated financial statements include the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.

Certain Significant Risks and Uncertainties

The Company continues to be subject to the risks and challenges associated with other companies at a similar stage of development, including risks associated with: dependence on key personnel; successful marketing and sale of its solutions and adaptation of such solutions to changing market dynamics and customer preferences; competition from alternative products and services, including from larger companies that have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, more and better established customer relationships and greater resources than the Company; and the ability to raise additional capital to support future growth.

5

Apptio, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)

Since inception through September 30, 2017, the Company has incurred losses from operations, and accumulated a deficit of $219.1 million, and has been dependent on equity and debt financing to fund operations.

Significant Accounting Policies

There have been no material changes to our significant accounting policies and estimates as previously disclosed in the Company’s Form 10-K.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, 2017-09 Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Scope of Modification Accounting. ASU 2017-09 provides clarification on when modification accounting should be used for changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. This ASU does not change the accounting for modifications but clarifies that modification accounting guidance should only be applied if there is a change to the value, vesting conditions, or award classification and would not be required if the changes are considered non-substantive. The Company elected to early adopt this new standard in the second quarter of 2017. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions, including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and statutory tax withholding requirements, as well as classification in the statement of cash flows. For public entities, ASU 2016-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this new standard as of January 1, 2017. As of December 31, 2016, the Company has accumulated excess tax benefits from temporary differences in the amount and timing of stock-based compensation expense and the Company’s deductions on its income tax return from the award compensation that reduces the net operating loss deferred tax asset. The Company provided a full valuation allowance against its net deferred tax assets since it has been determined that it is more likely than not that all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Upon adoption of this standard, the stock-based compensation excess tax benefit was eliminated, resulting in an increase to the net operating loss deferred tax asset, with an increase in the valuation allowance of the same. The Company elected to continue to estimate the number of share-based awards expected to vest, rather than electing to account for forfeitures as they occur to determine the amount of stock-based compensation expense to be recognized each period. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.

New Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Inter-Entity Transfers of Assets other than Inventory. This guidance requires entities to recognize the income tax impact of an intra-entity sale or transfer of an asset other than inventory when the sale or transfer occurs, rather than when the asset has been sold to an outside party. The guidance will require a modified retrospective application with a cumulative catch-up adjustment to opening retained earnings at the beginning of the first quarter of fiscal 2019, but permits adoption in an earlier period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on the Company’s financial statements and the timing of adoption.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The objective of the update is to improve financial reporting by increasing transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. For public entities, the new standard is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. For all other entities, the new standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and for interim periods within those annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020. Early application of the amendments is permitted for all entities. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on the Company’s financial statements and the timing of adoption.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), outlining a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers that supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance with a comprehensive revenue measurement and recognition standard and expanded disclosure requirements. The standard also provides guidance on the recognition of costs related to obtaining customer contracts. For public entities, ASU 2014-09, as amended, is effective for annual periods and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. For all other entities, the new standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and

6

Apptio, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)

interim periods within those annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and the guidance must be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized as of the date of adoption.

Based on a preliminary assessment, the Company does not believe this standard will have a material impact on subscription or services revenue recognition in its consolidated financial statements. However, the standard will require the Company to capitalize certain contract costs, such as commissions, which are currently being expensed as incurred. Because these costs will now be capitalized and amortized over the respective term of the transaction, the Company expects that adoption of this standard will result in marginally lower sales and marketing expense in scenarios where current period sales results are higher than the prior period sales results. In scenarios where current period sales results are lower than the prior period sales results, the Company expects sales and marketing expenses would be marginally higher than if the Company had expensed these selling costs as incurred. The Company currently does not believe this will have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements, specifically as a reduction or increase to sales and marketing expense on an annual or quarterly basis. Additionally, the new guidance requires enhanced disclosures, including revenue recognition policies to identify performance obligations to customers and significant judgments in measurement and recognition.

The Company currently anticipates adopting the new standard on January 1, 2018 utilizing the full retrospective transition method.

Note 2. Fair Value Measurements

The following tables present information about the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that have been measured at fair value as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation inputs utilized to determine such fair value (in thousands):

September 30, 2017

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Money market funds

$

11,667

$

$

$

11,667

Corporate notes and obligations

45,879

45,879

U.S. government treasury securities

60,370

60,370

$

72,037

$

45,879

$

$

117,916

December 31, 2016

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Money market funds

$

18,029

$

$

$

18,029

Corporate notes and obligations

33,840

33,840

U.S. government treasury securities

41,347

41,347

$

59,376

$

33,840

$

$

93,216

At September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the Company utilized the market approach to value its money market mutual funds and U.S. government treasury securities using Level 1valuation inputs which include quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. The Company’s Level 2 marketable securities are valued using the market approach based onbroker or dealer quotations, actual trade data, recent observable transaction information for similar securities, benchmark yields or alternative pricing sources with reasonable levels of pricetransparency, and include the Company’s investments in U.S. agency securities and corporate notes and obligations, as applicable.

7

Apptio, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)

Note 3. Investments

Available-for-sale securities consist of fixed-income securities that are accounted for at fair value. Available-for-sale securities with an original maturity of 90 days or less are classified within cash and cash equivalents in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Premiums and discounts paid on securities at the time of purchase are recorded as accrued interest and amortized over the period of maturity. As of September 30, 2017, the Company did not hold any investments with a maturity date greater than one year. The amortized cost and fair value on the available-for-sale investments and unrealized gains and losses as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 were as follows (in thousands):

September 30, 2017

Amortized

Gross Unrealized

Gross Unrealized

Fair

Cost

Gains

Losses

Value

Amounts maturing in one year or less

Corporate notes and obligations

$

45,889

$

1

$

(11

)

$

45,879

U.S. government treasury securities

60,454

(84

)

60,370

Total short-term available-for-sale debt securities

$

106,343

$

1

$

(95

)

$

106,249

December 31, 2016

Amortized

Gross Unrealized

Gross Unrealized

Fair

Cost

Gains

Losses

Value

Amounts maturing in one year or less

Corporate notes and obligations

$

29,866

$

$

(25

)

$

29,841

U.S. government treasury securities

6,900

6,900

Total short-term available-for-sale debt securities

$

36,766

$

$

(25

)

$

36,741

Amounts maturing in greater than one year

Corporate notes and obligations

$

4,010

$

$

(11

)

$

3,999

U.S. government treasury securities

34,505

(58

)

34,447

Total long-term available-for-sale debt securities

$

38,515

$

$

(69

)

$

38,446

As of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the Company did not consider any of the unrealized losses on its investments to be other-than-temporarily impaired based on its evaluation of available evidence. None of the investments held as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 have been in a continuous unrealized loss position for more than 12 months. Realized gains and losses on sales of available-for-sale securities were immaterial for both periods presented.

Note 4. Stockholders’ Equity

Preferred Stock

As of September 30, 2017, the Company had authorized 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001, of which no shares were outstanding.

Common Stock

As of September 30, 2017 the Company had authorized 451,000,000 shares of Class A common stock and 44,000,000 shares of Class B common stock, each par value $0.0001 per share, of which 23,049,295 shares and 17,327,005 shares of Class A and Class B common stock, respectively, were issued and outstanding. Holders of Class A and Class B common stock are entitled to one vote per share and ten votes per share, respectively. Each share of Class B common stock is convertible at any time at the option of the holder into one share of Class A common stock. In addition, each share of Class B common stock will convert automatically into one share of Class A common stock upon transfer, subject to certain exceptions, and upon the earlier of (1) the seventh anniversary of the closing of the IPO, and (2) the date on which the Class B common stock ceases to represent at least 25% of the outstanding common stock. The shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except for voting and conversion rights. During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, 14,165,862 shares of Class B common stock were converted into 14,165,862 shares of Class A common stock at the request of the holders thereof.

8

Apptio, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)

Note 5. Equity Incentive Plans

2016 Equity Incentive Plan

The Company’s 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2016 Plan, became effective on September 21, 2016. The 2016 Plan provides for the grant of incentive stock options, or ISOs, within the meaning of Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code, to the Company’s employees or any of the Company’s subsidiaries’ employees, and for the grant of nonstatutory stock options, or NSOs, restricted stock, restricted stock units, stock appreciation rights, performance units and performance shares to employees, directors and consultants of the Company and the Company’s subsidiaries’ employees and consultants. As of September 30, 2017, the total number of shares available for issuance under the 2016 Plan was 4,538,495. These available shares will automatically increase each January 1, by the least of 5,500,000 shares of Class A common stock, 5% of the outstanding shares of all classes of the Company’s common stock as of the last day of the Company’s immediately preceding fiscal year, and such other amount as the Company’s board of directors may determine on or before the last day of the Company’s immediately preceding fiscal year.

2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan

The Company’s Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or 2016 ESPP, became effective on September 21, 2016. As of September 30, 2017, the total number of shares of Class A common stock available for issuance under the 2016 ESPP was 967,818. These available shares will automatically increase each January 1, by the least of 1,600,000 shares of Class A common stock, 1% of the number of shares of all classes of the Company’s common stock outstanding on the immediately preceding fiscal year, and such lesser number of shares as determined by the Company’s board of directors.

The 2016 ESPP allows eligible employees to purchase shares of the Company’s Class A common stock at a discount through payroll deductions of their eligible compensation, subject to any plan limitations. Except for the initial offering period, the 2016 ESPP provides for separate six-month offering periods beginning November 30 and May 31 of each fiscal year. The initial offering period ran from September 23, 2016 through May 31, 2017. The initial offering period included the employee enrollment period, which ran from September 23, 2016 to November 10, 2016, at which time employee deductions commenced.

On each purchase date, eligible employees will purchase the Company’s Class A common stock at a price per share equal to 85% of the lesser of (1) the fair market value of the Company’s Class A common stock on the first trading day of the offering period, which for the initial offering period was the initial price to public in the IPO, and (2) the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the purchase date.

No shares of Class A common stock were purchased under the 2016 ESPP during the three months ended September 30, 2017. During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, 165,559 shares of Class A common stock were purchased under the 2016 ESPP.

Stock Options

Stock option activity during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 was as follows (in thousands, except per share and contractual life data):

Weighted-

Weighted-

Average

Average

Remaining

Total

Options

Exercise Price

Contractual

Intrinsic

Outstanding

per Share

Life (years)

Value

Outstanding at December 31, 2016

11,203

$

9.49

Options granted

291

14.08

Options exercised

(1,877

)

4.79

Options forfeited or canceled

(684

)

13.85

Outstanding at September 30, 2017

8,933

$

10.29

6.55

$

73,081

Vested and expected to vest at September 30, 2017

8,826

$

10.24

6.50

$

72,672

Exercisable at September 30, 2017

6,051

$

8.47

5.66

$

60,489

As of September 30, 2017, there was a total of $16.8 million of unrecognized compensation cost, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, related to unvested stock-based compensation arrangements associated with options granted. That cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average remaining expected term of 2.3 years.

9

Apptio, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)

RSUs

RSU activity under the 2016 Plan during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 was as follows (in thousands, except per share data):

Weighted-Average

RSUs

Grant Date Fair Value

Outstanding

per Share

Non-Vested outstanding at December 31, 2016

628

$

16.43

Granted

1,397

14.39

Vested

Forfeited or canceled

(148

)

15.55

Non-Vested outstanding at September 30, 2017

1,877

$

14.98

As of September 30, 2017, total unrecognized compensation cost, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, related to unvested RSUs was approximately $24.3 million and the weighted-average remaining vesting period was 3.4 years.

Stock-based compensation expense recognized in the Company’s statement of comprehensive loss was as follows (in thousands):

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

Cost of revenue

Subscription

$

330

$

232

927

$

564

Professional services

294

190

842

557

Operating expenses

Research and development

1,179

698

3,332

1,965

Sales and marketing

1,239

735

3,316

2,176

General and administrative

1,315

632

3,250

1,640

Total stock-based compensation

$

4,357

$

2,487

$

11,667

$

6,902

Note 6. Net Loss Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders

The Company calculates basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders in conformity with the two-class method required for companies with participating securities. The Company considered all series of convertible preferred stock outstanding prior to the IPO to be participating securities. Under the two-class method, the net loss attributable to common stockholders is not allocated to the convertible preferred stock as the holders of convertible preferred stock do not have a contractual obligation to share in losses.

The diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by giving effect to all potential dilutive common stock equivalents outstanding for the period. For purposes of this calculation, convertible preferred stock, options to purchase common stock and warrants to purchase common stock and convertible preferred stock are considered common stock equivalents but have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders as their effect is antidilutive. Basic and diluted net loss per share was the same for each period presented, as the inclusion of all potential common shares outstanding would have been antidilutive.

10

Apptio, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)

The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share (in thousands, except per share data):

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

Numerator:

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$

(5,171

)

$

(8,755

)

$

(18,731

)

$

(23,636

)

Denominator:

Weighted-average common shares outstanding - basic and diluted

40,120

13,884

39,240

13,307

Net loss per common share - basic and diluted

$

(0.13

)

$

(0.63

)

$

(0.48

)

$

(1.78

)

The following weighted-average outstanding shares of common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods presented because the impact of including them would have been antidilutive (in thousands):

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

Options to purchase common shares

9,224

11,514

10,127

10,862

Restricted stock units

1,829

1,257

Employee stock purchase plan shares

158

207

Common stock warrant

11

46

11

36

Convertible preferred shares (as converted)

17,645

18,040

Preferred stock warrant (as converted)

26

27

11,222

29,231

11,602

28,965

Note 7. Segments

The Company operates its business as one operating segment. Its chief operating decision makers, or CODMs, are its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer. The CODMs review separate revenue information for the Company’s subscription and professional services revenue, and all other financial information, including free cash flow, presented on a consolidated basis, for purposes of making operating decisions, assessing financial performance and allocating resources.

Revenue

The following table sets forth the Company’s total revenue by geographic area for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, as determined based on the billing address of the customer (in thousands):

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

North America

$

33,541

$

29,941

$

98,080

$

87,341

Europe

10,928

9,066

31,470

24,259

APAC

2,527

1,620

6,602

4,649

$

46,996

$

40,627

$

136,152

$

116,249

Revenue attributed to the United States was approximately 99% of North America revenue for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016.

11

Apptio, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)

Note 8. Commitments and Contingencies

Leases

The Company has entered into non-cancellable operating leases, primarily related to rental of office space and certain office equipment. Certain lease agreements include rent payment escalation clauses and free rent (rent holidays). The total amount of base rentals over the term of the leases is charged to expense using the straight-line method with the amount of the rental expense in excess of lease payments recorded as a deferred rent liability. There have been no material changes to operating leases compared to those discussed in Note 11 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements as disclosed in the Company’s Form 10-K.

Other Commitments

The Company has entered into certain other non-cancellable agreements for software and marketing services that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum services to be used, pricing provisions and the approximate timing of the transaction. There have been no material changes for commitments compared to those discussed in Note 11 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements as disclosed in the Company’s Form 10-K.

Legal Matters

From time to time, the Company has become involved in claims and other legal matters arising in the ordinary course of business. The Company makes a provision for a liability relating to legal matters when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These provisions are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, estimated settlements, legal rulings, advice of legal counsel and other information and events pertaining to a particular matter. Although claims are inherently unpredictable, the Company is currently not aware of any matters that may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows, individually or in the aggregate.

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

This discussion contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Statements containing words such as “may,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “projections,” “business outlook,” “estimate,” or similar expressions constitute forward-looking statements. You should read these statements carefully because they discuss future expectations, contain projections of future results of operations or financial condition or state other “forward-looking” information. These statements relate to our future plans, objectives, expectations, intentions and financial performance and the assumptions that underlie these statements. They include, but are not limited to, statements about:

Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this report, including those factors discussed in Part II, Item 1A (Risk Factors).

In light of the significant uncertainties and risks inherent in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or anyone else that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all, or as predictions of future events. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

Overview

We are the leading provider of Technology Business Management, or TBM, solutions. Our cloud-based platform and SaaS applications enable IT leaders to analyze, optimize and plan technology investments, and benchmark their financial and operational performance against peers. We empower IT leaders to transform IT into a service provider, navigate the cloud transition, and shift technology resources to drive more business innovation.

We were founded in 2007 to deliver cloud-based TBM solutions to global enterprises. Our cycle of frequent updates has facilitated rapid innovation and the introduction of new applications throughout our history. We began offering our first TBM application via our extensible platform in 2008. Since then, we have continued to invest in product innovation and have consistently introduced new applications and capabilities to the market.

Because we offer our applications on a subscription basis, typically on contracts with one- to three-year terms, we have visibility into a substantial portion of future revenue. Subscription fees are based on two primary factors: (1) the customer’s annual costs being managed by the applications; and (2) the applications or capabilities for which the customer has subscribed. For some applications, pricing is also impacted by the number of users. We recognize revenue from subscription fees ratably over the term of the contract. We sell our offerings primarily through a direct sales force and we engage in a variety of marketing activities, including traditional and online activities as well as participation in, and support of, the TBM Council, which are designed to provide sales lead generation, sales support and market awareness. Customers may subscribe for one or more of our applications, and within those applications they may choose to subscribe for all or a portion of the respective application’s capabilities, which are segmented into modules. For those customers that do not initially implement all of our applications, we seek to sell additional applications and modules over time. We believe that there is a significant opportunity to continue to expand the number of applications deployed by existing customers. We also derive revenue from professional services. Professional services revenue includes revenue from application configuration, integration, change management, education and training services, and conference registration and sponsorship fees. This revenue is largely driven by the number and mix of implementations that we perform in a quarter.

We generate the majority of our revenue in North America; however, we are focused on growing our international business. Revenue generated from customers outside of North America accounted for 29% and 28% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively, and 26% and 25% of total revenue in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, respectively. For additional information regarding revenue generated from each geographic segment, please see Note 7 of the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements.

We have grown significantly in a relatively short period of time. Our diverse customer base includes companies across industries and sizes, and our direct sales force has historically targeted organizations with annual IT spend of $100 million or more. Beginning in 2014, we expanded the focus of our sales force to include a broader set of target customers, often referred to as the Global 10,000, which includes many companies with annual IT spend of less than $100 million. We expect these customers will account for an increasing amount of our revenue over time. A substantial majority of our revenue growth has come from new customers. Our current financial focus is on growing our revenue and expanding our customer base. While we are incurring losses today, we strive to invest in a disciplined manner across all of our functional areas to drive continued near-term revenue growth and support our long-term initiatives. Our operating expenses have increased in absolute dollars in recent periods, primarily due to employee growth. We had 745 and 709 employees as of September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

We had total revenue of $47.0 million and $40.6 million for the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, reflecting a period-over-period increase of 16%. Subscription revenue was $39.4 million and $33.3 million for the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, reflecting a period-over-period increase of 18%. For the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, total revenue was $136.2 million and $116.2 million, respectively, reflecting a period-over-period increase of 17%. Subscription revenue was $112.9 million and $95.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, reflecting a period-over-period increase of 19%. We incurred net losses of $5.2 million and $8.8 million for the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and net losses were $18.7 million and $23.6 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We had an accumulated deficit of $219.1 million as of September 30, 2017. We expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability.

Our Business Model

Our business model focuses on maximizing the lifetime value of customer relationships. We make significant investments in acquiring new customers and believe that we will be able to achieve a substantial positive return on these investments by retaining customers, increasing the number of applications and modules deployed by customers over time, and increasing the spend managed by our applications. In connection with the acquisition of new customers, we incur significant upfront costs, including sales and marketing costs associated with acquiring new customers, such as sales commission expenses, which are expensed upfront, and marketing costs, which are expensed as incurred. We recognize subscription revenue ratably over the term of the subscription period, which commences when all of the revenue recognition criteria have been met.

Our objective is for each customer relationship to be profitable over its lifetime, however, the costs we incur with respect to any customer relationship may exceed revenue in earlier periods because we recognize those costs faster than we recognize the associated revenue. Over time, we expect a large portion of our customers to renew their subscriptions, purchase additional applications and expand their IT spend managed by our applications. We also expect the proportion of annual revenue from existing customers to grow relative to annual revenue from new customers. Our sales and marketing expense for renewals and additional sales to existing customers are significantly less than those for sales to new customers while the cost of revenue remains relatively constant. As a result, we believe the mix shift over time between new and existing customers will have a positive impact on our operating margins. Specifically, as the percentage of our annual revenue from existing customers grows relative to the annual revenue from new customers, we would expect the percentage of revenue spent on sales and marketing to decline.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

Net Subscription Dollar Retention Rate

We believe that our net subscription dollar retention rate provides insight into our ability to retain and increase revenue from our customers, as well as their potential long-term value to us. Accordingly, we compare the aggregate annual contract value of our customer base at the end of the prior 12 month period, which we refer to as the base annual contract value, to the aggregate annual contract value from the same group of customers at the end of the current 12 month period, which we refer to as the retained annual contract value. We calculate our net subscription dollar retention rate on a trailing 12 month basis by dividing the retained annual contract value by the base annual contract value. In the event a customer renews a subscription for a period that begins and ends in the same 12 month period, the value of that partial-year subscription is included in our calculation of retained annual contract value. Our net subscription dollar retention rate was approximately 100% for the 12 month period ended September 30, 2017.

Investment in Growth

We intend to continue investing for long-term growth. We plan to continue to expand our sales and marketing organizations to sell our offerings globally. In addition, we have invested, and expect to continue to invest, in our product development efforts to deliver additional compelling applications and to address customers’ evolving needs. We are also investing in personnel to service our growing customer base. These investments will increase operating expenses on an absolute dollar basis for the foreseeable future.

14

Many of these investments will occur in advance of our experiencing any direct benefit from them and will make it difficult to determine if we are allocating our resources efficiently. However, we expect research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses to decrease as a percentage of total revenue over the long-term as revenue grows, and we anticipate that we will gain economies of scale as our customer base grows.

Since our inception, we have invested in professional services to help ensure that customers successfully deploy and adopt our applications. Additionally, we continue to expand our professional services partner ecosystem to further support our customers. We believe that our investment in professional services, as well as partners building consulting practices around Apptio, will drive additional customer subscriptions and continued growth in revenue. In addition, over the long-term, we expect professional services revenue to decrease as a percentage of total revenue as our customer base continues to grow and as the effort required to deploy our solutions decreases, through product enhancements and our efforts to drive increased customer adoption of our standardized IT operating model, the Apptio TBM Unified Model, or ATUM.

Investment in Infrastructure

We have made, and intend to continue to make, substantial investments in infrastructure that will impact cost of revenue, operating expenses and capital expenditures. We intend to invest to support growth at our leased data centers and with public cloud infrastructure providers to deliver enhanced levels of service to our customers. We intend to continue to invest in enhancements to our cloud architecture, which are designed to provide our customers with enhanced security, scalability and availability. We intend to continue to evaluate the expansion of our data center locations to address additional geographic markets. In addition, we may expand existing and establish new facilities in the future to accommodate our projected headcount growth at various locations around the world. We may incur substantial costs in connection with such expansion efforts, including leasehold improvements, equipment costs, and, if headcount increases faster than we expect, potentially lease termination payments to enter into new leases for larger space.

Sales Cycles

We target sales efforts at enterprises and face long sales cycles, complex customer requirements, substantial upfront sales costs, and a relatively low and difficult to predict volume of sales on a quarter-by-quarter basis. This makes it difficult to predict with certainty our sales and related operating performance in any given period. Our typical sales cycle is approximately six months, but can be highly variable. Historically we have experienced an increased volume of sales in the last few weeks of the quarter which can affect the timing of recognized revenue and the possibility that sales cycles extend beyond the end of a quarter. Extending sales cycles beyond the end of a quarter, particularly for sizeable transactions, can harm forecasting accuracy and impact billings and new customer acquisition metrics for the quarter in which they are forecasted to close.

Meeting our financial plan in part depends on a predictable growth rate in the acquisition of new customers that represent high annual contract value, while additional growth and enhanced predictability in part depends on an increased volume of new customers with a relatively lower annual contract value. Our financial performance and the predictability of our quarterly financial results may be harmed by intermittent failures to secure the higher value enterprise agreements, or increase the volume of transactions overall, according to our forecasts, and depends in large part on the successful execution of our direct sales team.

Focus on Free Cash Flow

We define free cash flow as cash used in operating activities less purchases of property and equipment. We consider free cash flow to be an important measure that we are focused on to run our business. For a reconciliation of free cash flow to the related U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, measure, net cash used in operating activities, see the section captioned “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

Components of Our Results of Operations

Revenue

We derive revenue from two sources: (1) subscription revenue, which is comprised of subscription fees from customers accessing our platform, fees for additional support beyond the standard support that is included in the basic subscription fees, and fees for subscription-based online training; and (2) professional services, which consist of fees associated with the implementation and configuration of our applications, as well as fees for in-person training and conference registration and sponsorship fees for the TBM Council, the operations of which we consolidate in our financial statements given the nature of our relationship.

15

Subscription revenue is driven primarily by the acquisition of new customers and renewals by existing customers, the amount of annual spend our customers are licensed to manage with our applications, and the number of applications or capabilities for which the customer has subscribed.

Our contracts typically vary in length between one and three years. All subscription and support fees that are billed in advance of service are recorded in deferred revenue. Subscription and support-based revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription term. As a result, most of the revenue that we report in each period is derived from the recognition of deferred revenue relating to subscriptions entered into during previous periods. Pricing includes multiple environments, hosting and support services, data backup and disaster recovery services, as well as future upgrades, when and if available, offered during the subscription period. We typically invoice our customers for subscription fees in annual increments upon execution of the initial contract or subsequent renewal, but contract lengths and billing frequencies may vary. Therefore, the annualized value of the arrangements that we enter into with our customers may not be fully reflected in deferred revenue at any single point in time. Accordingly, we do not believe that the change in deferred revenue for any period is an accurate indicator of future revenue for a given period of time. Our contracts are generally non-cancelable during the subscription term, though a customer can terminate for breach if we materially fail to perform.

A typical new customer implementation takes three to six months depending on the customer’s complexity and timeliness. All professional services fees that are billed in advance of service are recorded in deferred revenue. Our professional services engagements are priced on either a time-and-materials basis or on a fixed-fee basis. In addition, sometimes partners will perform implementation services directly to our customers for which we do not receive professional services revenue. For time-and-materials arrangements, we recognize revenue as hours are worked at the stated hourly rate. For fixed-fee arrangements, we recognize professional services revenue using the percentage of completion method measured on an hours incurred basis. Professional services yield lower gross margins than subscriptions due to the labor-intensive nature of professional services.

On occasion, we sell our applications through third-party resellers. These arrangements typically call for the reseller to retain a portion of the subscription fee paid by the customer as compensation. Since we are typically responsible for the acceptability of the services purchased by the customer, we are the primary obligor in the transaction and, therefore, record revenue on a gross basis based on the amount billed to the customer. Reseller fees are recognized as sales and marketing expense as incurred.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

Cost of subscription revenue consists primarily of employee-related costs, including payroll, benefits and stock-based compensation expense for our technology operations and customer support teams, fees paid to our managed hosting providers and other third-party service providers, amortization of capitalized software development costs and acquired technology, and allocated overhead costs, which include rent, facilities and costs related to internal IT. We expect cost of subscription revenue to continue to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as our customer base grows.

Subscription gross margin, or subscription revenue less cost of subscription revenue expressed as a percentage of subscription revenue, can and does fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the timing and extent of the fees that we pay to our hosting providers and other third-party service providers, and the timing and extent of the investments that we make in additional data center infrastructure and capabilities. We expect subscription gross margin to increase modestly over the long-term, although it may fluctuate from period to period depending on the interplay of the factors discussed above. Because we have data centers in each of our three primary geographies, we expect to be able to more efficiently add capacity within these data centers to support our anticipated customer growth.

Cost of professional services revenue consists primarily of personnel costs of our professional services organization, including salaries, employee benefits, travel expenses, bonuses and stock-based compensation expense, as well as allocated overhead costs. Cost of professional services excludes costs associated with TBM Council activities, which we record as sales and marketing expenses. We expect cost of professional services revenue to continue to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we further expand our professional services organization to serve our growing customer base.

Professional services gross margin, or professional services revenue less cost of professional services revenue expressed as a percentage of professional services revenue, can and does fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the timing and extent of our investments in our professional services organization. The primary focus of our professional services business will continue to be providing high-quality customer deployments that allow customers to realize rapid value from our solutions and become long-term, loyal customers. In the future, we may choose to invest in our professional services organization at a pace faster than professional services revenue growth, in which case we may experience a decline in professional services gross margin. We also expect professional services gross margin to be positively affected in periods, particularly the fourth quarter, in which we recognize revenue related to TBM Council events. We expect professional services gross margin to remain relatively consistent over the long-term, although it may fluctuate from period to period depending on the interplay of the factors discussed above.

16

We expect total gross margin to increase modestly over the long-term as our subscription revenue increases as a percentage of total revenue, as we realize operational efficiencies in our data centers and public cloud hosting environments, and as we continue to leverage our partners to help us provide professional services, although total gross margin may fluctuate from period to period depending on the interplay of the factors discussed above.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense and other headcount-related costs associated with product development, hosting costs and depreciation of equipment used in research and development, consulting fees, and allocated overhead costs. For development costs related to our software and internal use software, qualifying internally developed software costs incurred during the application development stage are capitalized. Costs related to preliminary project activities and post-implementation activities are expensed as incurred. We expect research and development expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we continue to increase the functionality and otherwise enhance our platform and develop new applications. However, we expect research and development expenses to decrease modestly as a percentage of total revenue over the long-term as our customer base and revenue grows, although research and development expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue from period to period due to the seasonality of revenue and the timing and extent of these expenses.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for our sales and marketing employees, including sales commissions and incentives, employee benefits and stock-based compensation expense, marketing programs for lead generation, the costs associated with TBM Council activities and allocated overhead costs. We immediately expense sales commissions related to acquiring new customers and subsequent renewals from existing customers. We expect sales and marketing expenses to continue to increase and continue to be our largest component of operating expenses for the foreseeable future as we continue to expand our direct sales teams, increase our marketing activities, grow our international operations, and build brand awareness. However, we expect sales and marketing expenses to decrease as a percentage of total revenue over the long-term, although sales and marketing expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue from period to period due to the seasonality of revenue and the timing and extent of these expenses.

General and Administrative. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs and related expenses, including payroll, employee benefits and stock-based compensation expense for executive, finance, legal, human resources, and administrative personnel, professional fees for external legal, accounting and other consulting services and allocated overhead costs. We expect general and administrative expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we continue to grow and incur the costs of compliance associated with being a publicly traded company, including increased legal, audit and consulting fees. Although general and administrative expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue from period to period due to the seasonality of revenue and the timing and extent of these expenses, in the near term, general and administrative expenses may increase as a percentage of total revenue; however, we expect general and administrative expenses to decrease modestly as a percentage of total revenue over the long-term as we focus on processes, systems and controls to enable our internal support functions to scale with the growth of our business.

Other Income (Expense)

Interest Income (Expense) and Other, Net. Interest income (expense) and other, net consists primarily of interest expense on our capital leases and debt, and fair value adjustments for our preferred stock warrant liability. Interest income is derived from our available-for-sale investments.

Foreign Exchange Gain (Loss). Foreign exchange gain (loss) consists primarily of foreign currency remeasurement and transaction gains and losses related to the impact of transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency (U.S. dollars). As we have expanded our international operations, our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currencies has increased, and we expect this trend to continue.

Provision for Income Taxes. Provision for income taxes consists primarily of income taxes in certain foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business. As we expand our international operations, we anticipate our foreign tax expense will increase moderately. We have a full valuation allowance for net deferred tax assets, including net operating loss carryforwards, and tax credits related primarily to research and development. We expect to maintain this full valuation allowance for the foreseeable future.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe free cash flow, which is a non-GAAP measure, is useful in evaluating our business performance. We define free cash flow as net cash used in operating activities, less purchases of

17

property and equipment. We regularly review this liquidity measure because we believe free cash flow facilitates period-to-period comparisons of liquidity. We consider free cash flow to be an important measure because it measures the amount of cash we generate from our operations after our capital expenditures and reflects changes in working capital. We use free cash flow in conjunction with traditional GAAP measures as part of our overall assessment of our liquidity, including the preparation of our annual operating budget and quarterly forecasts, to evaluate the effectiveness of our business strategies and to communicate with our board of directors concerning our liquidity.

Our definitions may differ from the definitions used by other companies, and, therefore, comparability may be limited. In addition, other companies may not publish these or similar metrics. Thus, our free cash flow should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, or in isolation from, measures prepared in accordance with GAAP.

We compensate for these limitations by providing investors and other users of our financial information reconciliations of free cash flow to the related GAAP financial measure, net cash used in operating activities. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety, not to rely on any single financial measure and to view free cash flow in conjunction with the related GAAP financial measure.

The following table provides a reconciliation of net cash provided by (used in) operating activities to free cash flow:

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

(in thousands)

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

$

10,876

$

(2,188

)

Less: purchases of property and equipment

(2,837

)

(3,518

)

Free cash flow

$

8,039

$

(5,706

)

Net cash used in investing activities

$

(33,970

)

$

(8,142

)

Net cash provided by financing activities

$

10,924

$

102,617

Results of Operations

The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented and as a percentage of our total revenue for those periods.

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

(in thousands)

Revenue

Subscription

$

39,426

$

33,314

$

112,860

$

94,995

Professional services

7,570

7,313

23,292

21,254

Total revenue

46,996

40,627

136,152

116,249

Cost of revenue

Subscription (1)

7,167

6,921

22,269

19,960

Professional services (1)

6,763

7,068

21,599

19,780

Total cost of revenue

13,930

13,989

43,868

39,740

Gross profit

33,066

26,638

92,284

76,509

Operating expenses

Research and development (1)

10,139

9,015

30,060

26,072

Sales and marketing (1)

20,863

18,300

60,983

54,256

General and administrative (1)

7,188

6,285

20,342

16,969

Total operating expenses

38,190

33,600

111,385

97,297

Loss from operations

(5,124

)

(6,962

)

(19,101

)

(20,788

)

Other income (expense)

Interest income (expense) and other, net

311

(1,312

)

811

(1,746

)

Foreign exchange gain (loss)

105

(367

)

173

(774

)

Loss before provision for income taxes

(4,708

)

(8,641

)

(18,117

)

(23,308

)

Provision for income taxes

(463

)

(114

)

(614

)

(328

)

Net loss

$

(5,171

)

$

(8,755

)

$

(18,731

)

$

(23,636

)

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

(in thousands)

Cost of revenue

Subscription

$

330

$

232

$

927

$

564

Professional services

294

190

842

557

Operating expenses

Research and development

1,179

698

3,332

1,965

Sales and marketing

1,239

735

3,316

2,176

General and administrative

1,315

632

3,250

1,640

Total stock-based compensation

$

4,357

$

2,487

$

11,667

$

6,902

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

(as a percentage of total revenue)

Revenue

Subscription

84

%

82

%

83

%

82

%

Professional services

16

18

17

18

Total revenue

100

100

100

100

Cost of revenue

Subscription

15

17

16

17

Professional services

15

17

16

17

Total cost of revenue

30

34

32

34

Gross profit

70

66

68

66

Operating expenses

Research and development

22

23

22

22

Sales and marketing

44

45

45

47

General and administrative

15

15

15

15

Total operating expenses

81

83

82

84

Loss from operations

(11

)

(17

)

(14

)

(18

)

Other income

Interest income (expense) and other, net

(4

)

1

(1

)

Foreign exchange gain (loss)

(1

)

(1

)

Loss before provision for income taxes

(11

)

(22

)

(13

)

(20

)

Provision for income taxes

(1

)

Net loss

(11

)%

(22

)%

(14

)%

(20

)%

Three Months Ended September 30, 2017 Compared to the Three Months Ended September 30, 2016

Revenue

Three Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Subscription

$

39,426

$

33,314

$

6,112

18

%

Professional services

7,570

7,313

257

4

Total revenue

$

46,996

$

40,627

$

6,369

16

Subscription revenue increased for the three months ended September 30, 2017 primarily due to the impact of new customer acquisition. Professional services revenue increased for the three months ended September 30, 2017 primarily due to an increase in implementation fees associated with the growth in our customer base.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

Three Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Cost of revenue:

Subscription

$

7,167

$

6,921

$

246

4

%

Professional services

6,763

7,068

(305

)

(4

)

Total cost of revenue

$

13,930

$

13,989

$

(59

)

Gross margin:

Subscription

82

%

79

%

Professional services

11

3

Total gross margin

70

66

The overall increase in cost of subscription revenue was primarily attributable to increased personnel-related costs of $0.2 million driven by headcount growth, which resulted in increased employee compensation, benefits and travel costs and amortized software costs increased $0.2 million. Additionally, the allocation of shared service charges to cost of professional services increased by $0.1 million resulting in a reduction of cost of subscription revenue.

The overall decrease in cost of professional services revenue was primarily attributable to a decrease in personnel-related costs of $0.1 million and a decrease in outside services of $0.1 million, offset by an increase in allocated shared services charges from cost of subscription of $0.1 million.

Subscription gross margin increased because the subscription revenue growth rate outpaced the growth in subscription cost of revenue due to growth in our customer base.

Professional services gross margin increased due primarily to a higher effective bill rate in the three months ended September 30, 2017 as compared to the same period in 2016. The effective bill rate may vary period over period, based on the composition of projects being delivered. The increase in the effective bill rate was partially offset by a decrease in billable utilization rates.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development

Three Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Research and development

$

10,139

$

9,015

$

1,124

12

%

Percentage of total revenue

22

%

23

%

Research and development expenses increased primarily due to increased personnel-related costs of $1.2 million, consisting of increased employee compensation and benefits costs of $0.7 million and additional stock-based compensation of $0.5 million, driven by headcount growth. Average headcount in research and development increased 7% from the three months ended September 30, 2016 compared to the same period in 2017 to support continued upgrades and enhancements to our platform and applications and to develop new technologies.

Sales and Marketing

Three Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Sales and marketing

$

20,863

$

18,300

$

2,563

14

%

Percentage of total revenue

44

%

45

%

Sales and marketing expenses increased due to the expansion of our sales force. Average headcount in sales and marketing increased 10% from the three months ended September 30, 2016 as compared to the same period in 2017, contributing to a $2.5 million increase in personnel-related costs, consisting of $2.0 million related to increased employee compensation, benefits, commissions, and increased travel costs associated with our direct sales force, and additional stock-based compensation of $0.5 million, for the three months ended September 30, 2017.

General and Administrative

Three Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

General and administrative

$

7,188

$

6,285

$

903

14

%

Percentage of total revenue

15

%

15

%

General and administrative expenses increased primarily due to increased stock-based compensation of $0.7 million and an increase in legal, accounting, and insurance fees principally as a result of being a public company of approximately $0.1 million.

Other Income (Expense)

Three Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Interest income (expense) and other, net

$

311

$

(1,312

)

$

1,623

(124

)%

Foreign exchange gain (loss)

105

(367

)

472

(129

)

Interest income increased approximately $0.3 million due to higher investment balances. In addition, interest expense decreased by $1.4 million during the three months ended September 30, 2017 as we had no term loan borrowings outstanding during the period. The increase in foreign exchange gain was primarily due to strengthening of the British Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar versus the U.S. dollar during the third quarter of 2017 compared to the same period in 2016.

Provision for income taxes

The increase in provision for income taxes was due to a change in the geographical mix of taxable earnings from our foreign operations.

Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017 Compared to the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2016

Revenue

Nine Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Subscription

$

112,860

$

94,995

$

17,865

19

%

Professional services

23,292

21,254

2,038

10

Total revenue

$

136,152

$

116,249

$

19,903

17

Subscription revenue increased for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 primarily due to the impact of new customer acquisition. Professional services revenue increased for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 primarily due to an increase in implementation fees associated with the growth in our customer base.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

Nine Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Cost of revenue:

Subscription

$

22,269

$

19,960

$

2,309

12

%

Professional services

21,599

19,780

1,819

9

Total cost of revenue

$

43,868

$

39,740

$

4,128

10

Gross margin:

Subscription

80

%

79

%

Professional services

7

7

Total gross margin

68

66

The overall increase in cost of subscription revenue was primarily attributable to increased personnel-related costs of $2.2 million driven by headcount growth, which resulted in increased employee compensation, benefits and travel costs of $1.8 million, and additional stock-based compensation of $0.4 million. In addition, amortized software costs increased by $0.4 million and allocated overhead expenses increased by $0.4 million. These increases were offset by decreased consulting fees of $0.5 million. Additionally,

the allocation of shared service charges to cost of professional services increased by $0.3 million resulting in a reduction of cost of subscription revenue.

The overall increase in cost of professional services revenue was primarily attributable to an increase in outside services of $1.0 million, due to the planned expansion of our professional services partner ecosystem to further support our customers and to supplement internal staff in providing implementation services in 2017, and an increase in allocated shared services charges from cost of subscription of $0.3 million.

Subscription gross margin for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 increased as a result of an increase in revenue from growth in our customer base and our ability to more efficiently add capacity in our data centers due to previous investments in this infrastructure.

Professional services gross margin was in line for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 compared to the same period in 2016.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development

Nine Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Research and development

$

30,060

$

26,072

$

3,988

15

%

Percentage of total revenue

22

%

22

%

Research and development expenses increased primarily due to increased personnel-related costs of $4.5 million, consisting of increased employee compensation and benefits costs of $3.1 million and additional stock-based compensation of $1.4 million, driven by headcount growth. Average headcount in research and development increased 13% from the nine months ended September 30, 2016 compared to the same period in 2017 to support continued upgrades and enhancements to our platform and applications and to develop new technologies. This increase was offset by decreases in depreciation expense of $0.2 million and capitalized development costs related to our software solutions and internal use software of approximately $0.1 million. Qualifying internally developed software costs, including personnel-related costs, incurred during the application development stage, are capitalized and recorded in property and equipment, net.

Sales and Marketing

Nine Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Sales and marketing

$

60,983

$

54,256

$

6,727

12

%

Percentage of total revenue

45

%

47

%

Sales and marketing expenses increased due to the expansion of our sales force and increased allocated overhead costs. Average headcount in sales and marketing increased 12% from the nine months ended September 30, 2016 compared to the same period in 2017, contributing to a $5.9 million increase in personnel-related costs, consisting of increased employee compensation, benefits, commissions, and increased travel costs associated with our direct sales force of $4.8 million, and additional stock-based compensation of $1.1 million.

General and Administrative

Nine Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

General and administrative

$

20,342

$

16,969

$

3,373

20

%

Percentage of total revenue

15

%

15

%

General and administrative expenses increased primarily due to an increase in personnel-related expenses of $2.3 million, net of allocations, consisting of increased employee compensation, benefits and travel costs of $0.7 million and additional stock-based

compensation of $1.6 million, driven by head count growth. Average headcount in general and administrative increased 8% from the nine months ended September 30, 2016 compared to the same period in 2017. Additionally, legal, accounting, and insurance fees increased principally as a result of being a public company by approximately $0.8 million, and rent expense increased by $0.2 million as a result of the expansion of our primary office lease in 2016.

Other Income (Expense)

Nine Months Ended September 30,

Change

2017

2016

Amount

%

(dollars in thousands)

Interest income (expense) and other, net

$

811

$

(1,746

)

$

2,557

(146

)%

Foreign exchange gain (loss)

173

(774

)

947

(122

)

Interest income increased approximately $0.8 million due to higher investment balances. In addition, interest expense decreased by $1.8 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 as we had no term loan borrowings outstanding during the period. The decrease in foreign exchange loss was primarily due to strengthening of the British Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar versus the U.S. dollar during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 compared to the same period in 2016.

Provision for income taxes

The increase in provision for income taxes was due to a change in the geographical mix of taxable earnings from our foreign operations.

Seasonality

We have historically experienced seasonality in terms of when we enter into agreements with customers. We typically enter into a significantly higher percentage of agreements with new customers, as well as renewal agreements with existing customers, in the fourth quarter and, to a lesser extent, the second quarter. The increase in customer agreements for the fourth quarter is attributable to large enterprise account buying patterns typical in the software industry. Fourth quarter professional services revenue is also typically positively impacted by recognition of TBM Council conference registration and sponsorship fees.

Sales and marketing expenses are typically higher in the fourth quarter due to commissions on the increase in customer agreements we typically see in that quarter and higher effective commission rates due to annual accelerators, as well as increased expenses associated with the TBM Council conference.

Furthermore, we usually enter into a significant portion of agreements with customers during the last month, and often the last two weeks, of each quarter. This seasonality is reflected to a much lesser extent, and sometimes is not immediately apparent, in revenue, due to the fact that we recognize subscription revenue over the term of the subscription agreement, which is generally one to three years. Although these seasonal factors are common in the technology industry, historical patterns should not be considered a reliable indicator of future sales activity or performance.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of September 30, 2017, we had $135.5 million of cash, cash equivalents and investments. Historically, we funded our operations principally through sales of equity securities, sales of subscriptions and professional services, or the incurrence of debt. On September 28, 2016, we closed our IPO of 6,900,000 shares of Class A common stock at an initial price to public of $16.00 per share, resulting in aggregate net proceeds to us of $99.0 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and offering expenses. In 2017, our principal uses of cash are funding operations and other working capital requirements. Over the past several years, revenue has increased significantly from year to year and, as a result, cash flows from customer collections have increased. However, operating expenses have also increased as we have invested in growing our business. Our operating cash requirements may increase in the future as we continue to invest in the strategic growth of our company.

We believe that existing cash and investments, as well as any positive cash flows from operations will be sufficient to support working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months.

From time to time, we may explore additional financing sources and means to lower our cost of capital, which could include equity, equity-linked and debt financing. We cannot assure you that any additional financing will be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.

Cash Flows

The following table shows cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 (in thousands):

Nine Months Ended September 30,

2017

2016

Cash provided by (used in) operating activities

$

10,876

$

(2,188

)

Cash used in investing activities

(33,970

)

(8,142

)

Cash provided by financing activities

10,924

102,617

Operating Activities

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities consists primarily of net loss adjusted for certain non-cash items, including stock-based compensation, depreciation and amortization, foreign currency gains and losses, other non-cash charges, as well as changes in working capital sources and uses of cash.

Net cash provided by operating activities during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 reflected our net loss of $18.7 million, offset by non-cash expenses that included $11.7 million of stock-based compensation and $4.7 million of depreciation and amortization. Working capital sources of cash included a decrease of $12.0 million in accounts receivable, a $3.3 million decrease in prepaid expenses and other current assets and a $0.1 million increase in deferred revenue. These sources of cash were offset by a $2.0 million net decrease in accounts payable, accrued expenses and deferred rent.

Net cash used in operating activities during the nine months ended September 30, 2016 reflected our net loss of $23.6 million, offset by non-cash expenses that included $6.9 million of stock-based compensation and $4.5 million of depreciation and amortization and $0.7 million of loss on extinguishment of debt. Working capital sources of cash included a decrease of $10.3 million in accounts receivable, and a $0.5 million increase in deferred revenue. These sources of cash were offset by a $0.7 million increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets and a $1.2 million net decrease in accounts payable, accrued expenses and deferred rent.

Investing Activities

Our investing activities consist primarily of purchases, sales and maturities of available-for-sale securities, property and equipment purchases for computer-related equipment and software, leasehold improvements to leased office facilities and capitalization of software development costs. Capitalized software development costs are related to new applications or improvements to our existing software platform that expands the functionality for customers, or new or expanded functionality for internal use software.

Net cash used in investing activities during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 consisted primarily of $66.2 million in purchases of available-for-sale securities, and $2.8 million of purchased property and equipment and capitalized software development costs, offset by $35.1 million of cash maturities from available-for-sale securities.

Net cash provided by investing activities during the nine months ended September 30, 2016, consisted primarily of $10.8 million in purchases of available-for-sale securities, and $3.5 million of purchased property and equipment and capitalized software development costs, offset by $6.2 million of cash maturities from available-for-sale securities.

Financing Activities

Our financing activities consist primarily of proceeds from the exercise of stock options, proceeds from purchases of Class A common stock under our employee stock purchase plan, and debt borrowings to fund operations. Cash flows used in financing activities consist primarily of payment of IPO costs, loan fees and repayment of capital leases.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 consisted primarily of $8.9 million from proceeds received from option exercises and $2.3 million from proceeds from the purchase of Class A common stock under the employee stock purchase plan, offset by the payment of IPO costs of $0.2 million.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 consisted primarily of $102.7 million of IPO proceeds, net of underwriting discounts, $20.0 million in principal proceeds from term loan borrowings and $1.0 million from proceeds received from option exercises, offset by the repayment of $20.0 million in principal payments on term loan borrowings, and payment of deferred IPO costs and loan fees of $0.6 million.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

As of September 30, 2017, our principal obligations consisted of non-cancellable operating leases that expire at various dates through 2023. There have been no material changes in our principal lease commitments compared to those in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations previously disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed with the SEC on February 17, 2017, or Form 10-K.

Other commitments include certain other non-cancellable agreements for software and marketing services that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum services to be used, pricing provisions and the approximate timing of the transaction. There have been no material changes for commitments compared to those discussed Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in our Form 10-K.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities that would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our financial statements which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses at the date of the financial statements. Generally, we base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions in accordance with GAAP that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

Critical accounting policies and estimates are those that we consider the most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations because they require our most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Our critical accounting policies and estimates include those related to:

There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as previously disclosed in our Form 10-K.

Emerging Growth Company Status

As an “emerging growth company,” or EGC, the Jump-start Our Business Start-ups Act, or JOBS Act, allows us the option to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are made applicable to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period under the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of issuers who are required to comply with the effective dates for new or revised accounting standards that are applicable to public companies, which may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

Recently Adopted and Issued Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 1 of the notes to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a summary of recently adopted and issued accounting pronouncements.

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

Due to our international operations, we have foreign currency risks related to revenue and operating expenses denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, primarily the British Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar. Our sales contracts are primarily denominated in the local currency of the customer making the purchase. In addition, a portion of operating expenses are incurred outside the United States and are denominated in foreign currencies. Additionally, subscription fees are largely based on customers’ anticipated spend as expressed in U.S. dollars as managed by our system, which fee construct may increase the exposure of revenue to currency fluctuations. Decreases in the relative value of the U.S. dollar to other currencies may negatively affect revenue and other operating results as expressed in U.S. dollars. We do not believe that an immediate 10% increase or decrease in the relative value of the U.S. dollar to other currencies would have a material effect on operating results.

We have experienced and will continue to experience fluctuations in net loss as a result of transaction gains or losses related to remeasuring certain current asset and current liability balances that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the entities in which they are recorded. We have not engaged in the hedging of foreign currency transactions to date. We are evaluating the costs and benefits of initiating such a program and may in the future hedge selected significant transactions denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar as we expand international operations.

Interest Rate Sensitivity

We hold cash and cash equivalents for working capital purposes. We do not have material exposure to market risk with respect to investments, as any investments we enter into are primarily highly liquid investments.

Item 4. Controls and Procedures.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Based on such evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer have concluded that as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.

Changes in Internal Control

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting in connection with the evaluation required by Rules 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Inherent Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls

Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, does not expect that our disclosure controls and procedures or our internal control over financial reporting will prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the Company have been detected. The design of any system of controls also is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.

PART II—OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings.

As of the date of this quarterly report, we are not a party to any material legal proceedings. In the normal course of business, we may be named as a party to various legal claims, actions and complaints. We cannot predict whether any resulting liability would have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a history of losses and we expect our revenue growth rate to decline. As our costs increase, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We incurred net losses of $5.2 million and $8.8 million in the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and $18.7 million and $23.6 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We had an accumulated deficit of $219.1 million at September 30, 2017. We expect that our revenue growth rate will decline over time. We may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability. We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future and we expect our costs to increase in future periods as we expend substantial financial and other resources on, among other things:

These expenditures may not result in additional revenue or the growth of our business. If we fail to continue to grow revenue or to achieve or sustain profitability, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline.

We have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our prospects and future operating results.

We were incorporated in 2007 and introduced our first solution in 2008. Our limited operating history makes our ability to forecast future operating results difficult and subjects us to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan and model future growth. Our revenue grew 16% and 26% in the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and 17% and 23% in the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, compared to the same periods in the prior year; however, our historical revenue growth is not necessarily indicative of our future performance. Our revenue growth is expected to decline in future periods due to a number of reasons, which may include the maturation of our business, increase in overall revenue over time, slowing demand for our applications, increasing competition, a decrease in the growth of the markets in which we compete, or if we fail, for any reason, to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities, a decrease in our renewal rates, or a decline in available opportunities as a result of our increased market penetration in one or more of our markets.

We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, such as determining appropriate investments of our limited resources, market adoption of our current and future applications, competition from other companies, acquiring and retaining customers, hiring, integrating, training and retaining skilled personnel, developing new applications, determining prices and contract terms for our applications, and unforeseen expenses and challenges in forecasting accuracy. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our prospects, operating results and business could be harmed.

If the TBM market fails to develop, or we are unable to maintain our leadership within that market category, our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects could be harmed.

Our business model depends upon the development and adoption of the market for TBM solutions and our leadership within that market category. We derive and expect to continue to derive for some period of time the majority of revenue and cash flows from our core TBM solutions. The TBM market is relatively new and is evolving rapidly, and overall market acceptance of the importance of TBM and our solutions is critical to our continued success. If the market for TBM solutions does not continue to grow, or grows more slowly than we expect, or if the market for TBM solutions does not develop as we anticipate, our operating results would be harmed. In addition, successful market adoption will depend in part on our ability to correctly anticipate, identify and build the key features, functions, reports, metric selection, and packaging that is most useful and attractive to the market, all while maintaining sufficient flexibility with the platform as needed to accommodate customer-specific needs.

We derive, and expect to continue to derive, substantially all of our revenue and operating cash flows from TBM solutions and related professional services. If we fail to adapt our solutions to changing market dynamics and customer preferences or to achieve increased market acceptance of our TBM solutions, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and growth prospects would be harmed.

We derive, and expect to continue to derive, substantially all of our revenue and cash flows from TBM solutions and related professional services. As such, the market acceptance of TBM solutions is critical to our success. Demand for our TBM solutions is affected by a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, such as continued market acceptance of our solutions by customers for existing and new use cases, the timing of development and release of new applications, features, and functionality introduced by our competitors, technological change, and growth or contraction in our addressable market. Although we may expand our efforts in the marketplace beyond the TBM category, there can be no certainty that any such expansion will generate returns capable of offsetting the costs associated with any such expansion. You should consider our business and prospects based on our current solutions within the TBM category and, in light of the various challenges we and TBM as a category face, including those discussed in this “Risk Factors” section.

Our business model heavily depends on the acquisition of new customers, adoption by current customers of our solutions, renewals of their subscriptions and the purchase of additional subscriptions from us.

In order to maintain or improve our operating results, we depend on the acquisition of new customers, the adoption of additional applications by existing customers and the decision by existing and new customers to renew their subscriptions upon the expiration of their current contract term. Our contracts typically vary in length between one and three years and our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions after the expiration of their initial subscription periods. Our customers may elect not to renew, may seek to renew for lower subscription amounts or for shorter contract lengths, and may choose to renew for the same or fewer applications over time. Our renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including leadership changes within our customers resulting in loss of sponsorship, limited customer resources, pricing changes by us or our competitors, adoption and utilization of our solutions by our customers, customer satisfaction with our applications, the acquisition of our customers by other companies, procurement or budgetary decisions from legislative or other regulatory bodies, and deteriorating general economic conditions. To the extent our customer base continues to grow, renewals and the subscriptions to additional applications by renewing customers will become an increasingly important part of our results. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions for our applications, or decrease the amount they spend with us, revenue will decline and our business will be harmed.

Because our recent growth has resulted in the rapid expansion of our business, we do not have a long history upon which to base forecasts of customer renewal rates, customer upgrade rates or future revenue. As a result, our future operating results may be significantly below the expectations of investors, which could harm the market price of our Class A common stock.

If we fail to effectively develop and expand our sales and marketing capabilities, our ability to increase our customer base and increase acceptance of our TBM solutions could be harmed.

To increase the number of customers and increase the market acceptance of our solutions, we will need to expand our sales and marketing operations, including our domestic and international sales force. We will continue to dedicate significant resources to sales and marketing programs. We believe that there is significant competition for direct sales personnel with the sales skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve significant revenue growth in the future will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training and retaining a sufficient number of direct sales personnel. New hires require significant training and time before they achieve full productivity, particularly in new sales territories. Our recent hires and planned hires may not become as productive as quickly as we would like, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the future in the markets where we do business. The effectiveness of our sales and marketing has also varied over time and, together with the effectiveness of any partners or resellers we may engage, may vary in the future. Our business will be harmed if our efforts do not

generate a correspondingly significant increase in revenue. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force if we are unable to hire, develop and retain talented sales personnel, if our new sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective.

We may experience quarterly fluctuations in our operating results due to a number of factors, which makes our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations.

Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and we expect them to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance, and comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to the other risks described in this report, factors that may affect our quarterly operating results include:

We may not be able to accurately forecast the amount and mix of future subscriptions, size or duration of contracts, revenue and expenses and, as a result, our operating results may fall below our estimates or the expectations of public market analysts and investors. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of investors, or below any estimates we may provide, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline.

We target sales efforts at enterprise customers and the length, cost and uncertainty associated with sales cycles may result in fluctuations in our operating results and our failure to achieve the expectations of investors.

We target sales efforts at enterprises and face long sales cycles, complex customer requirements, substantial upfront sales costs, and a relatively low and difficult to predict volume of sales on a quarter-by-quarter basis. This makes it difficult to predict with certainty our sales and related operating performance in any given period. Our typical sales cycle is approximately six months, but is variable and difficult to predict and can be longer. Customers often undertake a prolonged evaluation of our solutions, including assessing their own readiness, scoping the professional services involved, and comparing our solutions to products offered by our competitors and their ability to solve the problem internally. Moreover, our customers often begin to deploy our solutions on a limited basis, but nevertheless demand extensive configuration, integration services and pricing concessions, which increase our upfront investment in the sales effort with no guarantee that these customers will deploy our solutions widely enough across their organization to justify our substantial upfront investment. Adherence to our financial plan in part depends on a predictable growth rate in the acquisition of new customers that represent high annual contract value, while additional growth and enhanced predictability in part depends on an increased volume of new customers with a relatively lower annual contract value. Our financial performance and the predictability of our quarterly financial results may be harmed by intermittent failures to secure the higher value enterprise

agreements, or increase the volume of transactions overall, according to our forecasts, and depends in large part on the successful execution of our direct sales team. In addition, because of the relatively small and tightly knit nature of the community of IT leaders within the enterprises that we sell into, our business is vulnerable to negative feedback or opinions even if held by a few influential leaders within this community.

Additionally, our quarterly sales cycles are generally more heavily weighted toward the end of the quarter with an increased volume of sales in the last few weeks of the quarter. This could negatively impact the timing of recognized revenue and billings, cash collections and delivery of professional services in subsequent periods. Furthermore, the concentration of contract negotiations in the last few weeks of the quarter could require us to expend more in the form of compensation for additional sales, legal and finance employees and contractors. Compression of sales activity to the end of the quarter also greatly increases the likelihood that sales cycles will extend beyond the quarter in which they are forecasted to close for some sizeable transactions, which will harm forecasting accuracy and adversely impact billings and new customer acquisition metrics for the quarter in which they are forecasted to close.

Because we recognize revenue from subscriptions ratably over the term of the agreement, near-term changes in sales may not be reflected immediately in our operating results.

We offer our applications primarily through multi-year subscription agreements, which typically vary in length between one and three years. All subscription fees that are billed in advance of service are recorded in deferred revenue. Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription term. As a result, most of the revenue that we report in each period is derived from the recognition of deferred revenue relating to subscriptions entered into during previous periods. A decline in new or renewed subscriptions in any one quarter is not likely to have a material impact on results for that quarter. However, declines would negatively affect revenue and deferred revenue balances in future periods, and the effect of significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our applications, and potential changes in our rate of renewals, may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our total revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers is recognized over the applicable subscription term.

Because we expense commissions associated with subscriptions to our applications immediately upon the execution of a subscription agreement with a customer, our operating income in any period may not be indicative of our financial health and future performance.

We expense commissions paid to sales personnel in the period in which we enter into an agreement for the subscription to our applications. In contrast, we recognize the revenue associated with a subscription to our applications ratably over the related subscription period. Although we believe higher sales is a positive indicator of the long-term health of our business, higher sales increases our operating expenses and could decrease earnings in any particular period. Thus, we may report poor operating results due to higher sales commissions in a period in which we experience strong sales of our applications. Alternatively, we may report better operating results due to the reduction of sales commissions in a period in which we experience a slowdown in sales. Therefore, you should not necessarily rely on our operating income during any one quarter as an indication of our financial health and potential future performance.

If we fail to attract and retain additional qualified personnel we may be unable to execute our business strategy.

To execute our business strategy, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. In particular, we compete with many other companies for software developers with high levels of experience in designing, developing and managing cloud-based software, as well as for skilled product development, marketing, sales and operations professionals, and we may not be successful in attracting and retaining the professionals we need, in particular in the Seattle, Washington area where we are headquartered. We have experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled employees with appropriate qualifications which may, among other things, impede our ability to execute our software development and sales strategies. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel are more well-known and have greater resources than we do. In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the software industry, job candidates often consider the value of the stock options or other equity incentives they are to receive in connection with their employment. If the price of our stock declines, or experiences significant volatility, our ability to attract or retain qualified employees will be adversely affected. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our growth prospects could be harmed.

The market in which we participate is increasingly competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be harmed.

The market for TBM solutions is relatively new and rapidly evolving. In many cases, our primary competition is the use of legacy spreadsheet-based business processes, or occasionally we encounter either custom software developed, or general purpose business intelligence solutions repurposed, by in-house IT and finance departments of our potential customers to meet specific

business needs. As we look to sell our solutions to potential customers with existing internal solutions, we must convince internal stakeholders that our TBM solutions are superior to the legacy solutions that the organization has previously adopted. If we are unable to effectively convince internal stakeholders at our prospective customers to abandon their legacy solutions, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

Larger companies, such as ServiceNow, provide a suite of products and services that includes TBM capabilities. These competitors have greater name recognition, much longer operating histories, more and better-established customer relationships, larger sales forces, larger marketing and software development budgets and significantly greater resources than we do. These large vendors commonly have an enterprise-wide license agreement in place with the Fortune 2000 enterprise company customer base and are able to leverage that license to easily transact for their services. In some cases, these large vendors may be willing to provide their competing software for free as part of enterprise-wide agreements that include other products or services, which has resulted in pricing pressures and lost sales. Further, such large vendors frequently benefit from existing system integrator and other go-to-market relationships that facilitate their sales and marketing efforts, and that can be easily redirected to competition with us in the TBM market. In addition, certain of our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements, or simply accelerate product development and improvements at greater velocity.

Several specialized companies target the TBM market through solutions that are tailored to a specific TBM use case or industry. Some of our principal competitors in these situations offer their products or services at a lower price, which has resulted in pricing pressures and lost sales. Potential customers with discrete and immediate needs that may be addressed by these niche solutions may choose to deploy these solutions instead of an offering from our integrated suite of TBM solutions. If we fail to compete effectively against these more specific, niche providers of TBM solutions, our business will be harmed.

We expect competition to intensify in the future. We expect that the large software vendors who currently do not have an offering in the TBM category, some of which operate in adjacent product categories today, may in the future bring such a solution to market through product development, acquisitions or other means. Such vendors would potentially benefit from the same advantages described above regarding our existing larger competitors, but perhaps on an even greater scale. Also, a simpler solution could gain traction in the market and acceptance by medium sized businesses, which may result in downward pressure on our pricing and potentially a decrease in market share and market opportunity for us.

If we fail to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards and changing customer needs or requirements, our solutions may become less competitive.

Our success depends on our ability to adapt and enhance our solutions. To attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers, we need to continue to enhance and improve our solutions, capabilities and enhancements to meet customer needs at prices that our customers are willing to pay. Such efforts will require adding new functionality and responding to technological advancements, which will increase our research and development costs. If we are unable to develop solutions that address customers’ needs, or enhance and improve our offerings in a timely manner, we may not be able to maintain or increase market acceptance of our solutions. Further, many of our existing and potential future competitors expend a considerably greater amount of funds on their research and development programs, and those that do not may be acquired by larger companies that would allocate greater resources to competitors’ research and development programs. If we fail to maintain adequate research and development resources or compete effectively with the research and development programs of our competitors our business could be harmed. Our ability to grow is also subject to the risk of future disruptive technologies. If new technologies emerge that are able to deliver TBM solutions at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely, such technologies could adversely affect our ability to compete.

We may not receive significant revenue from our current development efforts for several years, if at all.

Developing software applications is expensive and the investment in product development often involves a long return on investment cycle. We have made and expect to continue to make significant investments in development and related product opportunities. Accelerated product introductions and short product life cycles require high levels of expenditures that could adversely affect our operating results if not offset by revenue increases. We believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not receive significant revenue from these investments for several years, if at all.

Our planned further expansion of our business outside the United States exposes us to risks associated with international operations.

Our growth strategy involves the further expansion of our operations and customers located outside of the United States. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, 29% and 28%, respectively of our revenue was derived from customers located

outside North America, primarily from customers in Europe, compared to 26% and 25% for the same periods in 2016, respectively. A key element of our growth strategy is to expand our international operations and develop a worldwide customer base. While we have initiated efforts to expand our business into Asia-Pacific through a limited presence in Australia and Singapore, our investment may never be recouped. Our current international operations and future initiatives will involve a variety of risks, including:

Our limited experience in operating our business internationally increases the risk that any potential future expansion efforts that we may undertake will not be successful. If we invest substantial time and resources to expand our international operations and are unable to do so successfully and in a timely manner, our business and operating results will be harmed.

Increased sales to customers outside the United States and/or paid for in currency other than the U.S. dollar exposes us to potential currency exchange losses.

As our international sales and operations increase, so too will the number and significance of transactions, including intercompany transactions, occurring in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. In addition, our international subsidiaries may accumulate assets and liabilities that are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, which is the functional reporting currency of these entities. Accordingly, changes in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar can affect our revenue and operating results due to transactional and translational remeasurement that is reflected in our earnings. We do not currently maintain a program to hedge transactional exposures in foreign currencies. However, in the future, we may use derivative instruments, such as foreign currency forward and option contracts, to hedge certain exposures to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The use of such hedging activities may not offset any or more than a portion of the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates over the limited time the hedges are in place. Moreover, the use of hedging instruments may introduce additional risks if we are unable to structure effective hedges with such instruments. Additionally, our license fees are largely based on our customers’ anticipated spend managed by our solutions expressed in U.S. dollars, which fee construct may increase the exposure of our revenue to currency fluctuations.

If we fail to manage our rapid growth effectively, or our business does not grow as we expect, our operating results may suffer.

Our employee base and operations have grown substantially in a relatively short period of time. Our full-time employee base grew from 709 employees as of September 30, 2016 to 745 employees as of September 30, 2017. Our growth has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on our operational, financial and management infrastructure. We anticipate further increases in headcount will be required to support increases in our application offerings and continued expansion. To manage this growth effectively, we must continue to improve operational, financial and management systems and controls by, among other things:

If we fail to effectively manage expansion or implement new systems, or if we fail to implement improvements or maintain effective internal controls and procedures, costs and expenses may increase more than expected and we may not expand our customer base, increase renewal rates, enhance existing applications, develop new applications, satisfy customers, respond to competitive pressures, or otherwise execute our business plan. If we are unable to effectively manage our growth, our operating results will be harmed.

Our growth strategy depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties and their continued performance and alignment.

To continue our growth we will need to continue to develop various third-party relationships. In particular, our growth strategy depends on continuing to develop successful go-to-market partnerships with key technology, system integrator and consultant partners both domestically and internationally to help validate our solutions and provide introductions to certain potential customers, and in some cases to resell our solutions, or provide professional services related to them. Failure to successfully develop and implement strategic third-party relationships with resellers, technology providers and service providers could significantly harm our operating results. For example, results may suffer if efforts towards developing our go-to-market relationships consume resources and incur costs, but do not result in a commensurate increase in revenue for us. We also may enter into relationships with other businesses to expand our solutions or our ability to provide our solutions in international locations, which could involve preferred or exclusive licenses, additional channels of distribution, discount pricing or investments in other companies. The cost of developing and maintaining such relationships may go unrecovered or unrewarded.

If we fail to offer high-quality professional services and support, our business and reputation may suffer. If we fail to reduce the cost of those services, our operating results may be harmed.

High-quality professional services and support, including training, implementation and consulting services, are important for the successful marketing, sale and use of our solutions and for the renewal of subscriptions by existing customers. The importance of high-quality professional services and support will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers. If we do not

provide effective ongoing support, our ability to retain and sell additional functionality and applications to existing customers may suffer, and our reputation with existing or potential customers may be harmed.

At the same time, these services are provided at relatively high cost to us with resulting fees to the customer. These factors may negatively impact the future revenue growth for our solutions or lengthen the sales cycle, either of which would be detrimental to our business. We continue to pursue strategies to reduce the amount of professional services required for a customer to begin to use and gain value from our solutions, lower the overall costs of professional service fees to our customers, and improve the gross margin of our professional services business. If we are unable to successfully accomplish these objectives, our operating results, including our profit margins, may be harmed.

We rely on our management team and other key employees, and the loss of one or more key employees could harm our business.

Our success and future growth depend upon the continued services of our management team, including Sunny Gupta, one of our founders and our chief executive officer, and other key employees in the areas of engineering, marketing, sales, services and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. We also are dependent on the continued service of our existing software engineers and information technology personnel because of the complexity of our software, technologies and infrastructure. We may terminate any employee’s employment at any time, with or without cause, and any employee may resign at any time, with or without cause. We do not maintain any “key man” insurance for any employee. The loss of one or more of our management team members or key employees could harm our business.

If our network or computer systems are breached or unauthorized access to customer data is otherwise obtained, our applications may be perceived as insecure and we may lose existing customers or fail to attract new customers, our reputation may be damaged and we may incur significant liabilities.

Our operations involve the storage and transmission of our customers’ sensitive and proprietary information. Cyber-attacks and other malicious internet-based activity continue to increase generally, and cloud-based platform providers of software and services have been targeted. If any unauthorized access to or security breaches of our platform, or those of our service providers, occurs, or is believed to have occurred, such an event or perceived event could result in the loss of data, loss of intellectual property, loss of business, severe reputational or brand damage adversely affecting customer or investor confidence, regulatory investigations and orders, litigation, indemnity obligations, damages for contract breach, penalties for violation of applicable laws, regulations, or contractual obligations, and significant costs for remediation that may include liability for stolen assets or information and repair of system damage that may have been caused, incentives offered to customers or other business partners in an effort to maintain business relationships after a breach, and other liabilities. Additionally, any such event or perceived event could impact our reputation, harm customer confidence, hurt our sales and expansion into existing and new markets, or cause us to lose existing customers. We could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to alleviate problems caused by such actual or perceived breaches and to remediate our systems, we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation or regulatory action and possible liability, and our ability to operate our business may be impaired. Additionally, actual, potential or anticipated attacks may cause us to incur increasing costs, including costs to deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees and engage third-party experts and consultants.

In addition, if the security measures of our customers are compromised, even without any actual compromise of our own systems, we may face negative publicity or reputational harm if customers or anyone else incorrectly attributes the blame for such security breaches to us or our systems. If customers believe that our applications do not provide adequate security for the storage of personal or other sensitive information or its transmission over the internet, our business will be harmed. Customers’ concerns about security or privacy may deter them from using our platform for activities that involve personal or other sensitive information.

Our errors and omissions insurance covering certain security and privacy damages and claim expenses may not be sufficient to compensate for all liability. Although we maintain insurance for liabilities incurred as a result of some security and privacy damages, we cannot be certain that our coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all. Because the techniques used and vulnerabilities exploited to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or vulnerabilities or implement adequate preventative measures. We may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period.

Because data security is a critical competitive factor in our industry, we make public statements in our privacy policies, on our website, and elsewhere describing the security of our platform. Should any of these statements be untrue, become untrue, or be

perceived to be untrue, even if through circumstances beyond our reasonable control, we may face claims, including claims of unfair or deceptive trade practices, brought by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, state, local, or foreign regulators, and private litigants.

Interruptions or performance problems associated with our technology and infrastructure may adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our continued growth depends in part on the ability of our existing and potential customers to access our applications at any time. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, disruptions, outages, and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, introductions of new capabilities, human or technology errors, distributed denial of service attacks, or other security related incidents. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our performance, especially during peak usage times and as our platform becomes more complex and our user traffic increases. If our applications are unavailable or if our users are unable to access our applications within a reasonable amount of time, or at all, our business will be harmed.

Moreover, our customer agreements often include performance guarantees and service level standards that may obligate us to provide credits or termination rights in the event of a significant disruption in our platform. To the extent that our third-party service providers experience outages, or to the extent we do not effectively address capacity constraints, upgrade our systems as needed, and continually develop our technology and network architecture to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology, our business and operating results may be adversely affected.

Our use of “open source” software could negatively affect our ability to offer our applications and subject us to possible litigation.

Our applications use “open source” software that we, in some cases, have obtained from third parties. Open source software is generally freely accessible, usable and modifiable, and is made available to the general public on an “as-is” basis under the terms of a non-negotiable license. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software. Open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the software. In addition, certain open source licenses, like the GNU Affero General Public License, or AGPL, may require us to offer for no cost the components of our software that incorporate the open source software, to make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create by incorporating or using the open source software, or to license our modifications or derivative works under the terms of the particular open source license. If we are required, under the terms of an open source license, to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public, our competitors could create similar applications with lower development effort and time, which ultimately could result in a loss of sales for us.

We may also face claims alleging noncompliance with open source license terms or infringement or misappropriation of proprietary software. These claims could result in litigation, require us to purchase a costly license or require us to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer our applications, any of which would have a negative effect on our business and operating results, including being enjoined from the offering of the components of our software that contained the open source software. We could also be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition and require us to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer our applications.

Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our applications to unintended conditions, few courts have interpreted open source licenses, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our applications. We cannot guarantee that we have incorporated open source software in our software in a manner that will not subject us to liability, or in a manner that is consistent with our current policies and procedures.

Our business is dependent upon our brand recognition and reputation, and if we fail to maintain or enhance our brand recognition or reputation, our business could be harmed.

We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brand and our reputation are critical to our relationships with our customers and to our ability to attract new customers. We also believe that our brand and reputation will be increasingly important as competition in our market continues to develop. Our success in this area will depend on a wide range of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including the following:

If our brand promotion activities are not successful, our operating results and growth may be harmed.

Furthermore, negative publicity, whether or not justified, relating to events or activities attributed to us, employees, partners or others associated with any of these parties, may tarnish our reputation and reduce the value of our brand. Damage to our reputation and loss of brand equity may reduce demand for our applications and have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Moreover, any attempts to rebuild our reputation and restore the value of our brands may be costly and time consuming, and such efforts may not ultimately be successful.

We are materially invested in the formation and growth of the TBM Council, and our efforts in that area may fail to have a positive effect on our overall growth.

We have invested a significant amount of our money and time into the formation and growth of the TBM Council. Our ability to help build that organization, maintain strong relationships with the individuals involved, and build a positive public profile of the TBM Council and our association with the council, may have an effect on our overall success. It is possible that our efforts in this area will not yield the results that we are anticipating or the benefits of such efforts will not offset the costs.

We rely upon data centers and other systems and technologies provided by third parties, and technology systems and electronic networks supplied and managed by third parties, to operate our business and interruptions or performance problems with these systems, technologies and networks may adversely affect our business and operating results.

We rely on data centers and other technologies and services provided by third parties in order to operate our business. If any of these services becomes unavailable or otherwise is unable to serve our requirements due to extended outages, interruptions, facility closure, or because it is no longer available on commercially reasonable terms, expenses could increase, our ability to manage finances could be interrupted and our operations otherwise could be disrupted or otherwise impacted until appropriate substitute services, if available, are identified, obtained, and implemented.

We do not control, or in some cases have limited control over, the operation of the data center facilities we use, and they are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures and similar events. They may also be subject to break-ins, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism and similar misconduct, and to adverse events caused by operator error. We may not be able to rapidly switch to new data centers or move customers from one data center to another in the event of any adverse event. Despite precautions taken at these facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, an act of terrorism or other act of malfeasance, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our service and the loss of customer data.

Our ability to provide services and solutions to our subscribers also depends on our ability to communicate with our subscribers through the public internet and electronic networks that are owned and operated by third parties. In addition, in order to provide services on-demand and promptly, our computer equipment and network servers must be functional 24 hours per day, which requires access to telecommunications facilities managed by third parties and the availability of electricity, which we do not control. A severe disruption of one or more of these networks or facilities, including as a result of utility or third-party system interruptions, could impair our ability to process information and provide services to our customers.

Any unavailability of, or failure to meet our requirements by, third-party data centers or other third-party technologies or services, or any disruption of the internet or the third-party networks or facilities that we rely upon, could impede our ability to provide services to our subscribers, harm our reputation, result in a loss of subscribers, cause us to issue refunds or service credits to customers, subject us to potential liabilities, result in contract terminations, and adversely affect our renewal rates. Any of these circumstances could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Catastrophic events may disrupt our business and impair our ability to provide our solutions to our customers, resulting in costs for remediation, customer dissatisfaction, and other business or financial losses.

Our operations depend, in part, on our ability to protect our facilities against damage or interruption from natural disasters, power or telecommunications failures, criminal acts and similar events. Despite precautions taken at our facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, an act of terrorism, vandalism or sabotage, spikes in usage volume or other unanticipated problems at a facility could result in lengthy interruptions in the availability of our applications. Our headquarters are located in Bellevue, Washington, which is situated near active earthquake fault lines. Even with current and planned disaster recovery arrangements, our business could be harmed. Also, in the event of damage or interruption, our insurance policies may not adequately compensate us for any losses that we may incur. These factors in turn could further reduce revenue, subject us to liability and cause us to issue credits or cause customers to fail to renew their subscriptions, any of which could harm our business.

We may not timely and effectively scale our existing technology, including our computing architecture, to meet the performance and other requirements placed on our systems, which could increase expenditures unexpectedly and create risk of outages and other performance and quality of service issues for our customers.

Our future growth and renewal rates depend on our ability to meet our customers’ expectations with respect to the speed and other performance attributes of our solutions, and to meet the expanding needs of our customers as their use of our solutions grows. The number of users, the amount and complexity of data ingested, created, transferred, processed and stored by us, the number of locations where our applications are being accessed, and the number of processes and systems managed by us on behalf of these customers, among other factors, separately and combined, can have an effect on the performance of our applications. In order to ensure that we meet the performance and other requirements of our customers, we continue to make significant investments to develop and implement new technologies in our software and infrastructure operations. These technologies, which include database, application and server advancements, revised network and hosting strategies, and automation, are often advanced, complex, and sometimes broad in scope and untested via industry-wide usage. We may not be successful in developing or implementing these technologies. To the extent that we do not develop offerings and scale our operations in a manner that maintains performance as our customers expand their use, our business and operating results may be harmed.

We may not accurately assess the capital and operational expenditures required to successfully fulfill our objectives and our financial performance may be harmed as a result. Further, we may make mistakes in the technical execution of these efforts to improve our solutions, which may affect our customers. Issues that may arise include performance (speed), data loss, and outages as well as other issues that could give rise to customer satisfaction issues, loss of business, and harm to our reputation. If any of these were to occur there would be a negative and potentially significant impact to our financial performance. Lastly, our ability to generate new applications, and improve our current solutions may be limited if and to the extent resources are necessarily allocated to address issues related to the performance of existing solutions.

Real or perceived errors, failures, or bugs in our applications could adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.

We update our applications on a frequent basis. Despite efforts to test our updates, errors, failures or bugs may not be found in our applications until after they are deployed to our customers. We have discovered and expect we will continue to discover errors, failures and bugs in our applications and anticipate that certain of these errors, failures and bugs will only be discovered and remediated after deployment to customers. Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our applications could result in negative publicity, government inquiries, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our applications, loss of competitive position, or claims by customers for losses sustained by them. In such an event, we may be required, or may choose, for customer relations or other reasons, to expend additional resources in order to help correct the problem.

We implement bug fixes and upgrades as part of our regular system maintenance, which may lead to system downtime. Even if we are able to implement the bug fixes and upgrades in a timely manner, any history of inaccuracies in the data we collect for our customers, or the loss, damage or inadvertent release or exposure of confidential or other sensitive data could cause our reputation to be harmed and result in claims against us, and customers may elect not to purchase or renew their agreements with us or we may incur increased insurance costs. The costs associated with any material defects or errors in our applications or other performance problems may be substantial and could harm our operating results.

Because many of our customers use our applications to store and retrieve critical information, we may be subject to liability claims if our applications do not work properly. We cannot be certain that the limitations of liability set forth in our licenses and agreements would be enforceable or would otherwise protect us from liability for damages. A material liability claim against us, regardless of its merit or its outcome, could result in substantial costs, significantly harm our business reputation and divert management’s attention from our operations.

We are subject to governmental laws, regulation and other legal obligations, particularly related to privacy, data protection and information security, and any actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.

Personal privacy and information security are significant issues in the United States and the other jurisdictions where we offer our applications. The legislative and regulatory framework for privacy and security issues worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We collect PII and other data from our customers and users. Our handling of data is subject to a variety of laws and regulations, including regulation by various government agencies, including the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, and various state, local and foreign agencies.

In the United States, the FTC and many state attorneys general are applying federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards for the online collection, use and dissemination of data. Many foreign countries and governmental bodies, including the European Union, or EU, Canada, and other relevant jurisdictions where we conduct business, have laws and regulations concerning the collection and use of PII obtained from their residents or by businesses operating within their jurisdiction. These laws and regulations often are more restrictive than those in the United States. Laws and regulations in these jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure and security of data that identifies or may be used to identify or locate an individual, such as names, email addresses and, in some jurisdictions, Internet Protocol addresses. In the EU, where companies must meet specified privacy and security standards, Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, commonly referenced as the Data Protection Directive, and EU member state implementations of the Data Protection Directive, require comprehensive information privacy and security protections for consumers with respect to PII collected about them. The EU has adopted a General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, to supersede the Data Protection Directive. This regulation, which will become effective in May 2018, will cause EU data protection requirements to be more stringent and provide for greater penalties for noncompliance.

An October 2015 ruling of the Court of Justice of the EU, the EU’s highest court, invalidated the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor Framework as a method of compliance with restrictions set forth in the Data Protection Directive (and member states’ implementations thereof) regarding the transfer of data outside of the European Economic Area, or EEA. As a result of this ruling, we have entered into contractual provisions with certain European customers that impose additional obligations on us with respect to our handling of PII from the EEA. Additionally, U.S. and EU authorities reached a political agreement in February 2016 regarding a new potential means for legitimizing personal data transfers from the EEA to the U.S., the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework, and we have joined the Privacy Shield Framework. We publicly post our privacy policies and practices concerning our processing, use and disclosure of PII. Our publication of our Privacy Shield filing, our privacy policy, and other statements we publish that provide promises and assurances about privacy and security can subject us to potential state and federal action if they are found to be deceptive or misrepresentative of our practices. Additionally, we may find it necessary or desirable to join industry or other self-regulatory bodies or other privacy- or data protection-related organizations that require compliance with their rules pertaining to privacy and data protection. We also may be bound by additional, more stringent contractual obligations relating to our collection, use and disclosure of PII and other data.

In June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum and voted in favor of leaving the European Union, and in March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom formally initiated the withdrawal process, which has created uncertainty with regard to the regulation of data protection in the United Kingdom. In particular, although it is anticipated that the United Kingdom will enact data protection legislation designed to be consistent with the pending European General Data Protection Regulation, it remains unclear whether these or other data protection laws or regulations will be enacted and how data transfers to and from the United Kingdom will be regulated.

Although we are working to comply with those federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations and other legal obligations that apply to us, those laws, regulations, standards and obligations are evolving and may be modified, interpreted and applied in an inconsistent manner from one jurisdiction to another, and may conflict with one another, other requirements or legal obligations, our practices or the features of our applications or platform. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with federal, state or foreign laws or regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations or other legal obligations, or any actual or suspected security incident, whether or not resulting in unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release or transfer of PII or other data, may result in governmental enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies,

industry standards, contractual obligations, or other legal obligations could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales, and adversely affect our business.

We also expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions, and we cannot yet determine the impact such future laws, regulations and standards may have on our business. Future laws, regulations, standards and other obligations, and changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations, standards and other obligations could impair our or our customers’ ability to collect, use or disclose information relating to consumers, which could decrease demand for our applications, increase our costs and impair our ability to maintain and grow our customer base and increase revenue. New laws, amendments to or re-interpretations of existing laws and regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations and other obligations may require us to incur additional costs and restrict our business operations. Such laws and regulations may require companies to implement privacy and security policies, permit users to access, correct and delete personal information stored or maintained by such companies, inform individuals of security breaches that affect their personal information, and, in some cases, obtain individuals’ consent to use PII for certain purposes. In addition, a foreign government could require that any PII collected in a country not be disseminated outside of that country, and we may face difficulty in complying with any such requirement for certain geographic regions. If we fail to comply with federal, state and international data privacy laws and regulations our ability to successfully operate our business and pursue our business goals could be harmed.

Third-party claims that we are infringing the intellectual property rights of others, whether successful or not, could subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation or require us to obtain expensive licenses, and our business could be harmed.

The technology industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights. Companies in the technology industry must often defend against litigation claims based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. Third parties, including our competitors, may own patents or other intellectual property rights that cover aspects of our technology or business methods and may assert patent or other intellectual property rights against us and others in the industry. Moreover, in recent years, individuals and groups that are non-practicing entities, commonly referred to as “patent trolls,” have purchased patents and other intellectual property assets for the purpose of making claims of infringement in order to extract settlements. From time to time, we may receive threatening letters, notices or “invitations to license,” or may be the subject of claims that our applications and business operations infringe or violate the intellectual property rights of others. Responding to such claims, regardless of their merit, can be time consuming, costly to defend in litigation, divert management’s attention and resources, damage our reputation and brand and cause us to incur significant expenses. Claims of intellectual property infringement might require us to stop using technology found to infringe a third party’s rights, redesign our application, which could require significant effort and expense and cause delays of releases, enter into costly settlement or license agreements or pay costly damage awards, or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or selling our applications. If we cannot or do not license the infringed technology on reasonable terms or at all, or substitute similar technology from another source, we could be forced to limit or stop selling our applications, we may not be able to meet our obligations to customers under our customer contracts, revenue and operating results could be adversely impacted, and we may be unable to compete effectively. Additionally, our customers may not purchase our applications if they are concerned that they may infringe third-party intellectual property rights. The occurrence of any of these events may harm our business.

In our subscription agreements with our customers, we generally agree to indemnify our customers against any losses or costs incurred in connection with claims by a third party alleging that the customer’s use of our applications infringes the intellectual property rights of the third party. Our customers who are accused of intellectual property infringement may seek indemnification from us. If any claim is successful, or if we are required to indemnify or defend our customers from any of these or other claims, these matters could be disruptive to our business and management and result in additional legal expenses.

The success of our business depends in part on our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights.

Our success is dependent, in part, upon protecting our proprietary technology. Our issued patents, and any patents issued in the future, may not provide us with any competitive advantages or may be challenged by third parties, and our patent applications may never be granted. Additionally, the process of obtaining patent protection is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. Even if issued, there can be no assurance that these patents will adequately protect our intellectual property, as the legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of patent and other intellectual property rights are uncertain.

Any patents that are issued may subsequently be invalidated or otherwise limited, allowing other companies to develop offerings that compete with ours, which could adversely affect our competitive business position, business prospects and financial condition. In addition, issuance of a patent does not guarantee that we have a right to practice the patented invention. Patent applications in the United States are typically not published until 18 months after filing or, in some cases, not at all, and publications of discoveries in

industry-related literature lag behind actual discoveries. We cannot be certain that we were the first to use the inventions claimed in our issued patents or pending patent applications or otherwise used in our software, that we were the first to file for protection in our patent applications, or that third parties do not have blocking patents that could be used to prevent us from marketing or practicing our patented software or technology. Effective patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret protection may not be available to us in every country in which our software is available. The laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States (in particular, some foreign jurisdictions do not permit patent protection for software), and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate. Additional uncertainty may result from changes to intellectual property legislation enacted in the United States (including the recent “America Invents Act”) and other national governments and from interpretations of the intellectual property laws of the United States and other countries by applicable courts and agencies. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may be unable to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property.

Although we enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and enter into confidentiality agreements with our customers and the parties with whom we have strategic relationships and business alliances, no assurance can be given that these agreements will be effective in controlling access to and distribution of our applications and propriety information or prevent reverse engineering. Further, these agreements may not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our applications, and we may be unable to prevent this competition.

We may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights. Such litigation could be costly, time consuming and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate. Any litigation, whether or not resolved in our favor, could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management and technical personnel from our business and adversely affect our business. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation, could delay further sales or the implementation of our software and offerings, impair the functionality of our software and offerings, delay introductions of new features or enhancements, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our software and offerings, or injure our reputation.

We may initiate claims or litigation against third parties for infringement of our proprietary rights or to establish the validity of our proprietary rights. Litigation also puts our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing. Additionally, we may provoke third parties to assert counterclaims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially viable. Any litigation, whether or not it is resolved in our favor, could result in significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Future acquisitions could disrupt our business and may divert management’s attention and if unsuccessful, harm our business.

We may choose to expand by making acquisitions that could be material to our business. To date, we have completed one minor acquisition, in 2012, and our ability as an organization to successfully acquire and integrate technologies or businesses is unproven and limited. Acquisitions involve many risks, including the following:

We may not succeed in addressing these or other risks or any other problems encountered in connection with the integration of any acquired business. The inability to integrate successfully the business, technologies, products, personnel or operations of any acquired business, or any significant delay in achieving integration, could harm our business and operating results.

Our ability to raise capital in the future may be limited, and if we fail to raise capital when needed, we could be prevented from growing.

Our business and operations may consume resources faster than we anticipate. While we believe our cash and cash equivalents and cash flows from operations will be sufficient to support our planned operations for at least the next 12 months, in the future, we may need to raise additional funds to invest in future growth opportunities. Additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to invest in future growth opportunities, which could harm our business and operating results. In addition, future debt instruments may impose restrictions on our ability to dispose property, make changes in our business, engage in mergers or acquisitions, incur additional indebtedness, and make investments and distributions. Furthermore, if we issue additional equity securities, stockholders will experience dilution, and the new equity securities could have rights senior to those of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. As a result, stockholders bear the risk that future securities offerings reduce the market price of our Class A common stock and dilute their interest.

We may be subject to additional obligations to collect and remit sales tax and other taxes, and we may be subject to tax liability for past sales, which could harm our business.

We do not collect sales and use, value added and similar taxes in all jurisdictions in which we have sales, based on our belief that such taxes are not applicable in certain jurisdictions. State, local and foreign jurisdictions have differing rules and regulations governing sales, use, value added and other taxes, and these rules and regulations are subject to varying interpretations that may change over time. In particular, the applicability of such taxes to our software in various jurisdictions is unclear. Further, these jurisdictions’ rules regarding tax nexus are complex and vary significantly. As a result, we could face the possibility of tax assessments and audits. Our liability for these taxes and associated penalties and interest could exceed our original estimates, and we could be required to collect additional taxes in the future. A successful assertion that we should be collecting additional sales, use, value added or other taxes in those jurisdictions where we have not historically done so and do not accrue for such taxes could result in substantial tax liabilities and related penalties for past sales, discourage customers from purchasing our application or otherwise harm our business and operating results.

Changes in tax laws or regulations that are applied adversely to us or our customers could increase the costs of our applications and adversely impact our business.

New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time, which could affect the tax treatment of our (and our subsidiaries’) domestic and foreign earnings. Any new taxes could adversely affect our domestic and international business operations, and our business and financial performance. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us. Specifically, taxation of cloud-based applications is constantly evolving as many state and local jurisdictions consider the taxability of software services provided remotely. These events could require us or our customers to pay additional tax amounts on a prospective or retroactive basis, as well as require us or our customers to pay fines or penalties and interest for past amounts deemed to be due. If we raise our prices to offset the costs of these changes, existing and potential future customers may elect not to continue or purchase our platform or applications in the

future. Additionally, new, changed, modified or newly interpreted or applied tax laws could increase our customers’ and our compliance, operating and other costs, as well as the costs of our software. Any or all of these events could harm our business and operating results.

We are a multinational organization faced with increasingly complex tax issues in many jurisdictions, and we could be obligated to pay additional taxes in various jurisdictions.

As a multinational organization, we may be subject to taxation in several jurisdictions around the world with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which can be uncertain, and significant judgment and estimates are required in determining our provision for taxes. Our tax expense may be impacted if our intercompany transactions, which are required to be computed on an arm’s-length basis, are challenged and successfully disputed by tax authorities. Our policies governing transfer pricing may be determined to be inadequate and could result in additional tax assessments. The amount of taxes we pay in these jurisdictions could increase substantially as a result of changes in the applicable tax principles, including increased tax rates, new tax laws or revised interpretations of existing tax laws and precedents, which could harm our liquidity and operating results. In addition, the authorities in these jurisdictions could review our tax returns and impose additional tax, interest and penalties, and the authorities could claim that various withholding requirements or other taxes apply to us or our subsidiaries (including withholding and indirect taxes on software licenses and related intercompany transactions) or assert that benefits of tax treaties are not available to us or our subsidiaries, any of which could adversely affect our operating results.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2016, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $165.5 million, which will expire between 2027 and 2035. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a greater than 50-percentage-point cumulative change (by value) in the equity ownership of certain stockholders over a rolling three-year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes (such as research tax credits) to offset its post-change taxable income or taxes may be limited. We may experience such an ownership change in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which are outside our control. Furthermore, our ability to utilize the net operating losses or other tax attributes of companies that we may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of net operating losses, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing net operating losses could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. For these reasons, our ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset post-change taxable income or taxes may be subject to limitation, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us.

Future changes in the regulations and laws of the United States, or those of the international markets in which we do business, could harm our business.

We are subject to general business regulations and laws, as well as regulations and laws specifically governing the internet and software, in the United States as well as the international markets in which we do business. These regulations and laws may cover employment, taxation, privacy, data protection, pricing, content, copyrights, mobile communications, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, unencumbered internet access to our services, the design and operation of websites, and the characteristics and quality of software and services. It is possible changes to these regulations and laws, as well as compliance challenges related to the complexity of multiple, conflicting and changing sets of applicable regulations and laws, may impact our sales, operations, and future growth.

Significant U.K. or European developments stemming from the U.K.’s referendum on membership in the European Union could have a material adverse effect on us.

In June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum and voted in favor of leaving the European Union, and in March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom formally initiated the withdrawal process. This has created political and economic uncertainty, particularly in the United Kingdom and the European Union, and this uncertainty may last for years. Our business in the United Kingdom, the European Union, and worldwide could be affected during this period of uncertainty, and perhaps longer, by the impact of the United Kingdom’s referendum. There are many ways in which our business could be affected, only some of which we can identify as of the date of this report.

The decision of the United Kingdom to withdraw from the European Union, has caused and, along with events that could occur in the future as a consequence of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal, including the possible breakup of the United Kingdom, may continue to cause significant volatility in global financial markets, including in global currency and debt markets. This volatility could cause a slowdown in economic activity in the United Kingdom, Europe or globally, which could adversely affect our operating results

and growth prospects. In addition, our business could be negatively affected by new trade agreements or data transfer agreements between the United Kingdom and other countries, including the United States, and by the possible imposition of trade or other regulatory barriers in the United Kingdom. Furthermore, we currently operate in Europe through an Apptio subsidiary based in the United Kingdom, which currently provides us with certain operational, tax and other benefits, as well as through other subsidiaries in Europe. The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union could adversely affect our ability to realize those benefits and we may incur costs and suffer disruptions in our European operations as a result. These possible negative impacts, and others resulting from the United Kingdom’s actual or threatened withdrawal from the European Union, may adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.

Increased sales to U.S. federal, state, local and foreign governments expose us to risks inherent in government sales and procurement.

Contracts with U.S. federal, state, local and foreign government entities are subject to various procurement regulations and other requirements relating to their formation, administration and performance. We may be subject to audits and investigations relating to our government contracts and any violations could result in various civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contract, refunding or suspending of payments, forfeiture of profits, payment of fines and suspension or debarment from future government business. Further, in order to obtain, and in some cases expedite, sales to certain government customers, we may enter into subcontractor agreements with existing approved government contractors subjecting us to further risks associated with those subcontractor agreements as well as the potential default or breach of the underlying agreements between the approved government contractors and government entity to which we are not a party.

Risks Related to the Ownership of our Common Stock

The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with stockholders who hold Class B common stock, including our executive officers, employees and directors and their affiliates, which will limit your ability to influence the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.

Our Class B common stock has 10 votes per share, and our Class A common stock, which is the stock we offered in our IPO, has one vote per share. Our executive officers and directors and their related parties, which include funds affiliated with Madrona Venture Group and Shasta Ventures, collectively beneficially own shares representing approximately 79% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock, as of October 26, 2017. Because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between Class B common stock and Class A common stock, the holders of Class B common stock collectively continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our capital stock and therefore are able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval until the earlier of (1) the seventh anniversary of the closing of our IPO and (2) the date on which the Class B common stock ceases to represent at least 25% of our outstanding common stock, on which date all of the shares of Class B common stock will automatically convert to Class A common stock. These holders of Class B common stock may also have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentrated control may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their capital stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our Class A common stock.

Future transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting into shares of Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning or charitable purposes. The conversion of shares of Class B common stock into shares of Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term, which may include our executive officers and directors and their affiliates.

Our stock price may fluctuate significantly and the value of your investment may decline significantly.

The trading price of Class A common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. In addition to the other risks discussed in this report, these factors include:

The stock market in general, and market prices for the securities of technology companies like ours in particular, have from time to time experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of the underlying companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In several recent situations when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the stock. If any of our stockholders were to bring a lawsuit against us, the defense and disposition of the lawsuit could be costly and divert the time and attention of our management and harm our operating results.

If securities or industry analysts issue an adverse opinion about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A common stock is and will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us issues an adverse opinion about our company, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases research coverage of us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

Future sales of our common stock could cause our stock price to fall.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock into the public market, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers, and principal stockholders, or the perception that these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.

As of October 26, 2017, 23,087,064 shares of our Class A common stock were outstanding and 17,301,431 shares of our Class B common stock were outstanding. All shares of common stock sold are freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, unless held by our “affiliates,” as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act. In addition, the shares subject to outstanding options, restricted stock units, or RSUs, and warrants, of which options, RSUs and warrants to purchase 8,913,297 shares, 1,872,427 shares and 10,604 shares, respectively, were outstanding as of October 26, 2017, and the shares reserved for future issuance under our stock option and equity incentive plans will become available for sale immediately upon the exercise of such options. On September 23, 2016, we registered the offer and sale of all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans. As a consequence, the sale of shares to be issued under our equity incentive plans can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to the restrictions of Rule 144 under the Securities Act, in the case of our affiliates.

As of October 26, 2017, the holders of 12,920,398 shares, or approximately 32% of our common stock, have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of their shares or to include their shares in registration

statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. Once we register the offer and sale of shares for the holders of registration rights, they can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to the restrictions of Rule 144 under the Securities Act, in the case of our affiliates.

In addition, in the future, we may issue additional shares of Class A common stock or other equity or debt securities convertible into Class A common stock in connection with a financing, acquisition, commercial relationship, litigation settlement, employee arrangements or otherwise. Any such issuance could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could cause our stock price to decline.

Our management team has broad discretion to use the net proceeds from our IPO, and its investment of these proceeds may not yield a favorable return. They may invest the proceeds of this offering in ways with which investors disagree.

We expect to use the net proceeds from the IPO for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to expand our current business through acquisitions of or investments in other complementary businesses, technologies or other assets. However, we currently have no agreements or commitments with respect to any such acquisitions or investments at this time.

We could spend the proceeds from our IPO in ways our stockholders may not agree with or that do not yield a favorable return, if at all. If we do not invest or apply the proceeds of this offering in ways that improve our operating results, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware or Washington law could make an acquisition of us difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and adversely affect our stock price.

Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in our control or change in our management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares, or transactions that our stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our stock. Among other things, the certificate of incorporation and bylaws will:

In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Likewise, because our principal executive offices are located in Washington, the anti-takeover provisions of the Washington Business Corporation Act may apply to us under certain circumstances now or in the future. These provisions prohibit a “target corporation” from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any stockholder constituting an “acquiring person” for a period of five years following the date on which the stockholder became an “acquiring person.”

Our certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we otherwise consent in writing, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, any action to interpret, apply, enforce, or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

We are an “emerging growth company,” and any decision on our part to comply only with certain reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups, or JOBS, Act enacted in April 2012, and, for as long as we continue to be an “emerging growth company,” we may choose to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to have our independent registered public accounting firm audit our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years following the closing of our IPO, although, if we have more than $1.0 billion in annual revenue, if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day in June, or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period before the end of that five-year period, we would cease to be an “emerging growth company” as of the following December 31. We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A common stock less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A common stock less attractive as a result of any choices to reduce future disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

As an “emerging growth company” the JOBS Act, allows us to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are made applicable to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period under the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of issuers who are required to comply with the effective dates for new or revised accounting standards that are applicable to public companies, which may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We incur increased costs by being a public company.

As a public company, and particularly after we cease to be an “emerging growth company,” we will incur greater legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company, including costs associated with public company reporting requirements. We also anticipate that we will incur costs associated with corporate governance requirements, including requirements of the SEC and the Nasdaq Global Market. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We also expect that these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules, and we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

When our independent registered public accounting firm is required to undertake an assessment of our internal control over financial reporting, the cost of our compliance with Section 404 will correspondingly increase. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 applicable to us in a timely manner, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds.

Use of Proceeds from Public Offering of Class A Common Stock

In September 2016, we closed our IPO, in which we sold 6,900,000 shares of Class A common stock at a price to public of $16.00 per share, including shares sold in connection with the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares. The offer and sale of all of the shares in the IPO were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-213334), which was declared effective by the SEC on September 22, 2016. We raised $99.0 million in net proceeds after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $7.7 million and offering expenses of $3.7 million. Using the proceeds from the IPO, on September 28, 2016, we repaid $10.0 million principal amount of term borrowings under the senior credit facility and $10.0 million principal amount of term borrowings under the subordinated loan and security agreement. In addition, we paid a prepayment penalty and final payment fee in the aggregate amount of $0.2 million in connection with the foregoing repayment under the subordinated loan and security agreement. No payments were made by us to directors, officers or persons owning 10% or more of our capital stock or to their associates, or to our affiliates, other than payments in the ordinary course of business to officers for salaries. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our IPO as described in our Prospectus. We invested the funds received in accordance with our board approved investment policy, which provides for investments in obligations of the U.S. government, money market instruments, registered money market funds and corporate bonds. The managing underwriters of our IPO were Goldman, Sachs & Co. and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC.

Item 6. Exhibits.

(a) Exhibits

Exhibit

Number

Exhibit Description

Incorporated by Reference

Filed Herewith

Form

Date

Number

3.1

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation

10-Q

11/04/2016

3.1

3.2

Amended and Restated Bylaws

S-1/A

09/12/2016

3.2

31.1

Certification of Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

X

31.2

Certification of Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

X

32.1*

Certification of Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

X

32.2*

Certification of Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

X

101.INS

XBRL Instance Document

X

101.SCH

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Linkbase Document

X

101.CAL

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document

X

101.DEF

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document

X

101.LAB

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document

X

101.PRE

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document

X

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

Apptio, Inc.

Date: October 31, 2017

By:

/s/ Sachin Gupta

Sachin Gupta

President and Chief Executive Officer

(Principal Executive Officer)

Date: October 31, 2017

By:

/s/ Kurt Shintaffer

Kurt Shintaffer

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)


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