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Annual and transition report of foreign private issuers [Sections 13 or 15(d)]



Washington, DC 20549




For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015


For the transition period from to


Commission file number 1-14700

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited Republic of China
(Translation of Registrants Name Into English) (Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

No. 8, Li-Hsin Road 6

Hsinchu Science Park

Hsinchu, Taiwan

Republic of China

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Shares, par value NT$10.00 each* The New York Stock Exchange, Inc.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:


(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:


(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuers classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of December 31, 2015, 25,930,380,458 Common Shares, par value NT$10 each were outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ¨

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or (15)(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ¨ No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ¨ No ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large Accelerated Filer x Accelerated Filer ¨ Non-Accelerated Filer ¨

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:


International Financial Reporting Standards as issued

by the International Accounting Standards Board x

Other ¨

If Other has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x

* Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. of American Depositary Shares representing such Common Shares


Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited






















ITEM 10.


ITEM 11.




ITEM 13.


ITEM 14.


ITEM 15.


















ITEM 17.


ITEM 18.


ITEM 19.













TSMC, tsmc, and Open Innovation Platform (OIP) are some of our registered trademarks used by us in various jurisdictions, including the United States of America. All rights reserved.



This annual report includes statements that are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements within the meaning of U.S. securities laws. The terms anticipates, expects, may, will, could, should and other similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. These statements appear in a number of places throughout this annual report and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs or current expectations concerning, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth, strategies and the industries in which we operate.

By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industries in which we operate may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this annual report. Important factors that could cause those differences include, but are not limited to:

the volatility of the semiconductor and electronics industry;
overcapacity in the semiconductor industry;
the increased competition from other companies and our ability to retain and increase our market share;
our ability to develop new technologies successfully and remain a technological leader;
our ability to maintain control over expansion and facility modifications;
our ability to generate growth and profitability;
our ability to hire and retain qualified personnel;
our ability to acquire required equipment and supplies necessary to meet business needs;
our reliance on certain major customers;
the political stability of our local region; and
general local and global economic conditions.

Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our strategy and future plans, future business condition and financial results, our capital expenditure plans, our capacity management plans, expectations as to the commercial production using 10/7-nanometer and more advanced technologies, technological upgrades, investment in research and development, future market demand, future regulatory or other developments in our industry, business expansion plans or new investments as well as business acquisitions and financing plans. Please see Item 3. Key Information Risk Factors for a further discussion of certain factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by our forward-looking statements.


Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Selected Financial and Operating Data

The selected consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income data and other consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015, and the selected consolidated statements of financial position data as of December 31, 2014 and 2015, set forth below, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included herein, and should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, these consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, which have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRSs, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB. The selected consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income data and other consolidated financial data for the year ended December 31, 2012 and the selected consolidated statements of financial position data as of December 31, 2012 and 2013, set forth below, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included herein. Since 2013, our audited consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with IFRSs, pursuant to the transitional relief granted by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in respect of the first-time adoption of IFRSs, we have only provided financial statements and financial information for the financial years ended December 31, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Additionally, financial data as of and for the year ended December 31, 2011 derived from our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted (GAAP or R.O.C. GAAP) in the Republic of China (R.O.C. or Taiwan) have not been included below.

In addition to preparing financial statements in accordance with IFRSs as issued by the IASB included in this annual report, we also prepare financial statements in accordance with the IFRSs as adopted for use in Taiwan (Taiwan-IFRSs), which we are required to file with the Financial Supervisory Commission (FSC) of R.O.C. and Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) under the applicable regulations and listing rules of the TWSE. Please see Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects First Time Adoption of IFRSs for more details. English translations of such financial statements are furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K, which are not incorporated by reference to this or any of our previous annual reports on Form 20-F.

Year ended and as of December 31,
2012 2013 2014 2015

(in millions, except for percentages,

earnings per share and per ADS)

Consolidated Statements of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income Data:

Net revenue

506,745 597,024 762,806 843,497 25,724

Cost of revenue

(262,592 ) (315,642 ) (385,113 ) (433,117 ) (13,209 )

Gross profit before realized (unrealized) gross profit on sales to associates

244,153 281,382 377,693 410,380 12,515

Realized (unrealized) gross profit on sales to associates

(25 ) (21 ) 29 15 1

Gross profit

244,128 281,361 377,722 410,395 12,516

Operating expenses

(62,517 ) (71,339 ) (80,849 ) (88,467 ) (2,698 )

Other operating income and expenses, net

(449 ) 47 (1,002 ) (1,880 ) (57 )

Income from operations

181,162 210,069 295,871 320,048 9,761

Non-operating income and expenses, net

499 5,893 6,203 30,430 928

Income before income tax

181,661 215,962 302,074 350,478 10,689

Income tax expense

(22,375 ) (32,112 ) (47,890 ) (47,645 ) (1,453 )

Net income

159,286 183,850 254,184 302,833 9,236

Other comprehensive income (loss) for the year, net of income tax

4,261 16,359 11,805 (14,714 ) (449 )

Total comprehensive income for the year

163,547 200,209 265,989 288,119 8,787

Net income attributable to shareholders of the parent

159,481 183,978 254,302 302,851 9,236

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

(195 ) (128 ) (118 ) (18 ) (0 )

Total comprehensive income attributable to shareholders of the parent

163,692 200,343 266,091 288,145 8,788

Total comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

(145 ) (134 ) (102 ) (26 ) (1 )

Basic earnings per share

6.15 7.10 9.81 11.68 0.36

Diluted earnings per share

6.15 7.10 9.81 11.68 0.36

Basic earnings per ADS equivalent

30.76 35.48 49.04 58.40 1.78

Diluted earnings per ADS equivalent

30.75 35.48 49.04 58.40 1.78

Basic weighted average shares outstanding

25,921 25,928 25,929 25,930 25,930

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding

25,928 25,930 25,930 25,930 25,930
Year ended and as of December 31,
2012 2013 2014 2015
(in millions, except for cash dividend per common share)

Consolidated Statements of Financial Position Data:

Current assets

250,326 358,487 626,566 746,744 22,774

Long-term investments (1)

65,723 89,024 29,860 34,873 1,064

Property, plant and equipment

617,562 792,666 818,199 853,470 26,028

Intangible assets

10,960 11,490 13,531 14,066 429

Total assets

961,344 1,262,801 1,494,853 1,657,397 50,546

Current liabilities

158,103 203,974 224,785 239,772 7,313

Hedging derivative financial liabilities


Guarantee deposits

204 152 25,538 21,565 658

Long-term bonds payable

80,000 210,768 213,674 191,965 5,854

Net defined benefit liability

6,781 6,802 6,568 7,448 227

Total liabilities

247,749 428,688 472,492 462,427 14,103

Capital stock

259,245 259,286 259,297 259,304 7,908

Equity attributable to shareholders of the parent

711,052 833,846 1,022,234 1,194,008 36,414

Noncontrolling interests

2,543 267 127 962 29

Cash dividend per common share (2)

3.0 3.0 3.0 4.5 0.1
Year ended and as of December 31,
2012 2013 2014 2015

(in millions, except for percentages

and operating data)

Other Consolidated Financial Data:

Gross margin

48.2% 47.1% 49.5% 48.7% 48.7%

Operating margin

35.8% 35.2% 38.8% 37.9% 37.9%

Net margin

31.5% 30.8% 33.3% 35.9% 35.9%

Capital expenditures

246,137 287,595 288,540 257,517 7,854

Depreciation and amortization

131,349 156,182 200,252 222,506 6,786

Cash generated by operating activities

284,963 347,384 421,524 529,879 16,160

Cash used in investing activities

(269,318 ) (281,054 ) (282,421 ) (217,246 ) (6,625 )

Cash generated by (used in) financing activities

(13,589 ) 32,106 (32,328 ) (116,734 ) (3,560 )

Effect of exchange rate changes and others

(2,118 ) 849 8,979 8,341 254

Net increase (decrease) in cash

(62 ) 99,285 115,754 204,240 6,229

Operating Data:

Wafer (300mm equivalent) shipment (3)

6,242 6,963 8,263 8,763 8,763

Billing Utilization Rate (4)

91% 91% 97% 93% 93%
(1) Investments accounted for using equity method, noncurrent available-for-sale financial assets, and noncurrent held-to-maturity financial assets.
(2) Cash dividend per common share was approved by our shareholders on June 12, 2012, June 11, 2013, June 24, 2014, and June 9, 2015, respectively. The numbers are rounded to one decimal point.
(4) Billing Utilization Rate is equal to annual wafer shipment divided by annual capacity. Annual capacity includes wafers committed by Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation (VIS) and Systems on Silicon Manufacturing Company Pte. Ltd. (SSMC). Please see Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions Related Party Transactions.

Exchange Rates

We publish our financial statements in New Taiwan dollars, the lawful currency of the R.O.C. In this annual report, $, US$ and U.S. dollars mean United States dollars, the lawful currency of the United States, and NT$ and NT dollars mean New Taiwan dollars. This annual report contains translations of certain NT dollar amounts into U.S. dollars at specified rates solely for the convenience of the reader. The translations from NT dollars to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to NT dollars were made by the exchange rate as set forth in the statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board. Unless otherwise noted, all translations for the year 2015 were made at the exchange rate as of December 31, 2015, which was NT$32.79 to US$1.00. On April 1, 2016, the exchange rate was NT$32.26 to US$1.00.

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, information concerning the number of NT dollars for which one U.S. dollar could be exchanged.

NT dollars per U.S. dollar
Average (1) High Low Period-End


29.47 29.91 29.05 29.05


29.73 30.03 29.42 29.83


30.38 31.60 29.87 31.60


31.80 32.98 30.64 32.79

October 2015

32.44 32.81 31.92 32.46

November 2015

32.61 32.87 32.43 32.53

December 2015

32.79 33.01 32.53 32.79

January 2016

33.43 33.74 33.14 33.43

February 2016

33.24 33.51 32.95 33.22

March 2016

32.59 33.09 32.16 32.18

April 2016 (through April 1, 2016)

32.26 32.26 32.26 32.26
(1) Annual averages calculated from month-end rates and monthly averages calculated from daily closing rates.

No representation is made that the NT dollar or U.S. dollar amounts referred to herein could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or NT dollars, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.

Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

Risk Factors

We wish to caution readers that the following important factors, and those important factors described in other reports submitted to, or filed with, the Securities and Exchange Commission, among other factors, could affect our actual results and could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, and that such factors may adversely affect our business and financial status and therefore the value of your investment:

Risks Relating to Our Business

Any global systemic political, economic and financial crisis (as well as the indirect effects flowing therefrom) could negatively affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In recent times, several major systemic economic and financial crises negatively affected global business, banking and financial sectors, including the semiconductor industry and markets. These types of crises, including the prolonged decrease in economic growth or insolvency of major countries, could cause turmoil in global markets that often result in declines in electronic products sales from which we generate our income through our products and services. For example, there could be knock-on effects from these types of crises on our business, including significant decreases in orders from our customers; insolvency of key suppliers resulting in product delays; inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products; customer insolvencies; and counterparty failures negatively impacting our treasury operations. Any future systemic political, economic or financial crisis could cause revenues for the semiconductor industry as a whole to decline dramatically, and if the economic conditions or financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, additional accounting related allowances may be required in the future and such additional allowances could reduce our operating income and net income. Thus, any future global economic crisis could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

Since we are dependent on the highly cyclical semiconductor and electronics industries, which have experienced significant and sometimes prolonged periods of downturns and overcapacity, our revenues, earnings and margins may fluctuate significantly.

The electronics industries and semiconductor market are cyclical and subject to significant and often rapid increases and decreases in product demand. Our semiconductor foundry business is affected by market conditions in such highly cyclical electronics and semiconductor industries. Variations in order levels from our customers may result in volatility in our revenues and earnings. From time to time, the electronics and semiconductor industries have experienced significant and sometimes prolonged periods of downturns and overcapacity. Because we are, and will continue to be, dependent on the requirements of electronics and semiconductor companies for our services, periods of downturns and overcapacity in the general electronics and semiconductor industries could lead to reduced demand for overall semiconductor foundry services, including our services. If we cannot take appropriate actions such as reducing our costs to sufficiently offset declines in demand, our revenues, margin and earnings will suffer during periods of downturns and overcapacity.

Decreases in demand and average selling prices for products that contain semiconductors may adversely affect demand for our products and may result in a decrease in our revenues and earnings.

A vast majority of our revenue is derived from customers who use our services in communication devices, personal computers, consumer electronics products and industrial/standard products. Any decrease in the demand for any one of these products may decrease the demand for overall global semiconductor foundry services, including our services, and may adversely affect our revenues. Further, semiconductor manufacturing facilities require substantial investment to construct and are largely fixed cost assets once they are in operation. Because we own most of our manufacturing capacities, a significant portion of our operating costs is fixed. In general, these costs do not decline when customer demand or our capacity utilization rates drop, and thus declines in customer demand, among other factors, may significantly decrease our margins. Conversely, as product demand rises and factory utilization increases, the fixed costs are spread over increased output, which can improve our margins. In addition, the historical and current trend of declining average selling prices (or ASP) of end use applications places downward pressure on the prices of the components that go into such applications. If the ASP of end use applications continues decreasing, the pricing pressure on components produced by us may lead to a reduction of our revenues, margin and earnings.

In light of the rise of new foundry service providers worldwide, if we are unable to compete effectively in the highly competitive foundry segment of the semiconductor industry, we may lose customers and our profit margin and earnings may decrease.

The markets for our foundry services are highly competitive. We compete with other foundry service providers, as well as integrated device manufacturers that devote a significant portion of their manufacturing capacity to foundry operations. Some of these companies may have access to more advanced technologies and greater financial and other resources than us, such as the possibility of receiving direct or indirect government bailout/economic stimulus funds or other incentives that may be unavailable to us. Our competition may, from time to time, also decide to undertake aggressive pricing initiatives in one or more technology nodes. Increases in these competitive activities may decrease our customer base, or our ASP, or both. If we are unable to compete with any and each of these new competitors with better technologies and manufacturing capacity and capabilities, we risk losing customers to these new contenders.

If we are unable to remain a technological leader in the semiconductor industry or if we are unable to timely respond to fast-changing semiconductor market dynamics, we may become less competitive.

The semiconductor industry and its technologies are constantly changing. We compete by developing process technologies using increasingly advanced nodes and on manufacturing products with more functions. We also compete by developing new derivative technologies. If we do not anticipate these changes in technologies and rapidly develop new and innovative technologies, or our competitors unforeseeably gain sudden access to additional technologies, we may not be able to provide foundry services on competitive terms. In addition, our customers have significantly decreased the time in which their products or services are launched into the market. If we are unable to meet these shorter product time-to-market, we risk losing these customers. These factors have also been intensified by the shift of the global technology market to consumer driven products such as mobile devices, and increasing concentration of customers and competition (all further discussed among these risk factors). If we are unable to innovate new technologies that meet the demands of our customers or overcome the above factors, our revenues may decline significantly. Although we have concentrated on maintaining a competitive edge in research and development, if we fail to achieve advances in technologies or processes, we may become less competitive.

If we are unable to manage our capacity and production facilities effectively, our competitiveness may be weakened.

We perform long term market demand forecast for our products and services to manage our overall capacity. Because market conditions are dynamic, our market demand forecast may change significantly at any time. During periods of decreased demand, certain manufacturing lines or tools in some of our manufacturing facilities may be suspended or shut down temporarily. However, if subsequent demand increases rapidly in a short period of time, we may not be able to restore the capacity in a timely manner.

Recently, we have been adding capacity to our 300mm wafer fabs in the Hsinchu Science Park, Southern Taiwan Science Park and Central Taiwan Science Park, based on our market demand forecast. Expansion and modification of our production facilities will increase our costs. For example, we will need to purchase additional equipment, train personnel to operate the new equipment or hire additional personnel. If we do not increase our net revenue accordingly, our financial performance may be adversely affected by these increased costs. See Item 4. Information on The Company Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans for a further discussion.

We may not be able to implement our planned growth or development if we are unable to obtain sufficient financial resources to meet our future capital requirements.

Planning capital requirements is challenging in the highly dynamic, cyclical and rapidly changing semiconductor industry, especially during times of general market volatility in the fixed income, interest rates, foreign currencies and equities markets. From time to time and increasingly so for the foreseeable next few years, we will continue to need significant capital to fund our operations and manage our capacity in accordance with market demand. Our continued ability to obtain sufficient external financing is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:

our future financial condition, results of operations and cash flow;
general market conditions for financing activities;
market conditions for financing activities of semiconductor companies; and
social, economic, financial, political and other conditions in Taiwan and elsewhere.

Sufficient external financing may not be available to us on a timely basis, on reasonable market terms, or at all. As a result, we may be forced to curtail our expansion and modification plans or delay the deployment of new or expanded services until we obtain such financing.

We may not be able to implement our planned growth and development or maintain our leading position if we are unable to recruit and retain qualified executives, managers and skilled technical and service personnel.

We rely on the continued services and contributions of our executive officers and skilled technical and other personnel. Our business could suffer if we lose, for whatever reasons, the services and contributions of some of these personnel and we cannot adequately replace them. We may be required to increase or reduce the number of employees in connection with any business expansion or contraction, in accordance with market demand for our products and services. Since there is intense competition for the recruitment of these personnel, we cannot ensure that we will be able to fulfill our personnel requirements in a timely manner during an economic upturn.

We may be unable to obtain in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost equipment that are necessary for us to remain competitive.

Our operations and ongoing expansion plans depend on our ability to obtain an appropriate amount of equipment and related services from a limited number of suppliers in a market that is characterized from time to time by limited supply and long delivery cycles. During such times, supplier-specific or industry-wide lead times for delivery can be as long as six months or more. To better manage our supply chain, we have implemented various business models and risk management contingencies with suppliers to shorten the procurement lead time. Further, the growing complexities especially in next-generation lithographic technologies may delay the timely availability of the equipment and parts needed to exploit time sensitive business opportunities and also increase the market price for such equipment and parts. If we are unable to obtain equipment in a timely manner to fulfill our customers demands on technology and production capacity, or at a reasonable cost, our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted.

Our revenue and profitability may decline if we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of raw materials in a timely manner and at reasonable prices.

Our production operations require that we obtain adequate supplies of raw materials, such as silicon wafers, gases, chemicals, and photoresist, on a timely basis. In the past, shortages in the supply of some materials, whether by specific vendors or by the semiconductor industry generally, have resulted in occasional industry-wide price adjustments and delivery delays. In addition, major natural disasters, political or economic turmoil occurring within the country of origin of such raw materials may also significantly disrupt the availability of such raw materials or increase their prices. Also, since we procure some of our raw materials from sole-source suppliers, there is a risk that our need for such raw materials may not be met or that back-up supplies may not be readily available. Our revenue and earnings could decline if we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of the necessary raw materials in a timely manner or if there are significant increases in the costs of raw materials that we cannot pass on to our customers.

If the Ministry of Economic Affairs uses a substantial portion of our production capacity, we will not be able to service our other customers.

According to our agreement with the Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan, or ITRI, the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the R.O.C., or an entity designated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, has an option to purchase up to 35% of certain of our capacity, if our outstanding commitments to our customers are not prejudiced. Although the Ministry of Economic Affairs has never exercised this option, if this option is exercised to any significant degree during tight market conditions, we may not be able to provide services to all of our other customers unless we are able to increase our capacity accordingly or outsource such increased demand in a timely manner.

Any inability to obtain, preserve, enforce, defend and protect our technologies and intellectual property rights and third-party licenses could harm our competitive position.

Our ability to compete successfully and to achieve future growth will depend in part on the continued strength of our intellectual property portfolio. While we actively enforce and protect our intellectual property rights, there can be no assurance that our efforts will be adequate to prevent the misappropriation or improper use of our proprietary technologies, software, trade secrets or know-how. Also, we cannot assure you that, as our business or business models expand into new areas, we will be able to develop independently the technologies, patents, software, trade secrets or know-how necessary to conduct our business or that we can do so without unknowingly infringing the intellectual property rights of others. As a result, we may have to rely on, to a certain degree, licensed technologies and patent licenses from others. To the extent that we rely on licenses from others, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain any or all of the necessary licenses in the future on terms we consider reasonable or at all. The lack of necessary licenses could expose us to claims for damages and/or injunctions from third parties, as well as claims for indemnification by our customers in instances where we have contractually agreed to indemnify our customers against damages resulting from infringement claims.

We have received, from time-to-time, communications from third parties asserting that our technologies, our manufacturing processes, or the design of the semiconductors made by us or the use of those semiconductors by our customers may infringe their patents or other intellectual property rights. Because of the nature of the industry, we may continue to receive such communications in the future. These assertions have at times resulted in litigation. Recently, there has been a notable increase in the number of assertions made and lawsuits initiated by certain litigious, non-practicing entities and these litigious, non-practicing entities are also becoming more aggressive in their monetary demands and requests for court-issued injunctions. Such lawsuits or assertions may increase our cost of doing business and may potentially be extremely disruptive if these non-practicing entities succeed in blocking the trade of products and services offered by us.

We have or are expanding our manufacturing operations into certain offshore jurisdictions. To mitigate the risk of intellectual property misappropriation, we have implemented heightened safeguards against such misappropriation.

If we fail to obtain or maintain certain technologies or intellectual property licenses (or fail to prevent our intellectual property from being misappropriated) and, if litigation relating to alleged intellectual property matters occurs, it could: (i) prevent us from manufacturing particular products or selling particular services or applying particular technologies; and (ii) reduce our ability to compete effectively against entities benefiting from our misappropriated intellectual property, which could reduce our opportunities to generate revenues. See Item 8. Financial Information Legal Proceedings for a further discussion.

We are subject to the risk of loss due to explosion and fire because some of the materials we use in our manufacturing processes are highly combustible.

We and many of our suppliers use highly combustible and toxic materials in our manufacturing processes and are therefore subject to the risk of loss arising from explosion, fire, or environmental influences which cannot be completely eliminated. Although we maintain many overlapping risk prevention and protection systems, as well as fire and casualty insurance, our risk management and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses. If any of our fabs or vendor facilities were to be damaged, or cease operations as a result of an explosion, fire, or environmental influences, it could reduce our manufacturing capacity and may cause us to lose important customers, thereby having a potentially adverse and material impact on our financial performance.

Any impairment charges may have a material adverse effect on our net income.

Under IFRSs, we are required to evaluate our investments, tangible assets and intangible assets for impairment whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. If certain criteria are met, we are required to record an impairment charge. We are also required under IFRSs to evaluate goodwill for impairment at least on an annual basis or more frequently whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired and the carrying value may not be recoverable. We hold investments in certain publicly listed and private companies, some of which have incurred certain impairment charges as discussed further in our financial statements. We are not able to estimate the extent or timing of any impairment charge for future years. Any impairment charge required may have a material adverse effect on our net income.

The determination of an impairment charge at any given time is based significantly on the projected results of operations over a number of years subsequent to that time. Consequently, an impairment charge is more likely to occur during a period when our operating results are otherwise already depressed. See Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects Critical Accounting Policies And Judgments for a discussion of how we assess if an impairment charge is required and, if so, how the amount is determined.

Having one or more large customers that account for a significant percentage of our revenues may render us vulnerable to the loss of or significant curtailment of purchases by one or more large customers that could in turn adversely affect our results of operations. Similarly, the increasing consolidation of our customers may further increase our revenue concentration.

Over the years, our customer profile and the nature of our customers business have changed dramatically. While we generate revenue from hundreds of customers worldwide, our ten largest customers accounted for approximately 62%, 63 % and 63% of our net revenue in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Our largest customer accounted for 22%, 21% and 16% of our net revenue in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Our second largest customer in 2015 accounted for 16% of our net revenue, with 9% and 1% in 2014 and 2013, respectively. This customer concentration results in part from the changing dynamics of the electronics industry with the structural shift to mobile devices and applications and software that provide the content for such devices. There are only a limited number of customers who are successfully exploiting this new business model paradigm. Also, in order to respond to the new business model paradigm, we have seen the changes of nature in our customers business models. For example, there is a growing trend toward the rise of system houses that operate in a manner which make their products and services more marketable in a changing consumer market. Also, since the global semiconductor industry is becoming increasingly competitive, some of our customers have engaged in industrial consolidations in order to remain competitive. Such consolidations have taken the form of mergers and acquisitions. If more of our major customers consolidate, this will further decrease the overall number of our customer pool. The loss of, or significant curtailment of purchases by, one or more of our top customers, including curtailments due to increased competitive pressures, industrial consolidation, a change in their designs, or change in their manufacturing sourcing policies or practices of these customers, or the timing of customer or distributor inventory adjustments, or change in our major customers business models may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Any failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and to effectively prevent fraud. If we cannot provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and corruption, our reputation and results of operations could be harmed.

We are required to comply with various R.O.C. and U.S. laws and regulations on internal controls. But internal controls may not prevent or detect misstatements because of their inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, fraud or corruption. Therefore, even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, our business and operating results could be harmed, we could fail to meet our reporting obligations, and there could be a material adverse effect on the market price of our common shares and ADSs.

Our global manufacturing, design and sales activities subject us to risks associated with legal, political, economic or other conditions or developments in various jurisdictions, including in particular the R.O.C., which could negatively affect our business and financial status and therefore the market value of your investment.

The majority of our principal executive officers and our principal production facilities are located in the R.O.C., and a substantial majority of our net revenues are derived from our operations in the R.O.C. In addition, we have operations worldwide and a significant percentage of our revenue comes from sales to locations outside the R.O.C. Operating in the R.O.C. and overseas exposes us to changes in policies and laws, as well as the general political, economic and social conditions, outbreak of war or hostilities, terrorism, security risks, social unrests, protests, strikes, health conditions and possible disruptions in transportation networks, in the various countries in which we operate, which could result in an adverse effect on our business operations in such countries and our results of operations as well as the market price and the liquidity of our ADSs and common shares.

For example, the financial markets have viewed certain past developments in relations between the R.O.C. and P.R.C. as occasions to depress general market prices of the securities of Taiwanese companies, including our own. In addition, the R.O.C. government has not lifted some trade and investment restrictions imposed on Taiwanese companies on the amount and types of certain investments that can be made in P.R.C. In addition to the above factors, future expansions of our operations in Taiwan will likely be handicapped by shortages in water and electricity, the limited availability of commercial-use land, and experienced human resources. Our plans, investment applications and/or any relevant regulatory approvals to establish or possibly expand operations in China may be delayed, interrupted, suspended or cancelled due to unforeseeable social and political factors in Taiwan or China.

Our operational results could also be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters ( such as earthquakes), shortages or interruptions in the supply of utilities (such as shortages in electricity caused by changes in governmental energy policy), in the locations in which we, our customers or our suppliers operate.

The frequency and severity of natural disasters and severe weather has been increasing, in part due to climate change or systemic regional geological changes that manifest in damaging earthquakes. We have manufacturing and other operations in locations subject to natural disasters, such as flooding, earthquakes, tsunamis, highly polluted air conditions and droughts as well as interruptions or shortages in the supply of utilities, such as water and electricity, or access to land, air or sea infrastructures, that could disrupt operations. We source key raw materials from locations subject to natural disasters, such as severe weather, flooding, earthquakes, tsunamis, and droughts, and any major natural disaster occurring in any such locations may cause disruptions to our business, operations and financial performance. As recently as February 6, 2016, Taiwan, in which the majority of our manufacturing fabs are located, suffered an earthquake that damaged some of our wafers and equipment and resulted in wafer delivery delays in the first quarter. In addition, our suppliers and customers also have operations in such locations. For example, most of our production facilities, as well as those of many of our suppliers and customers and upstream providers of complementary semiconductor manufacturing services, are located in Taiwan and Japan, which are susceptible to earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, typhoons, and droughts from time to time that may cause shortages in electricity and water or interruptions to our operations. In addition, we have occasionally suffered power outages or surges in Taiwan caused by difficulties encountered by our electricity supplier, the Taiwan Power Company, or other power consumers on the same power grid, which have resulted in interruptions to our operations. Such shortages or interruptions in our electricity supply could further be exacerbated by potential changes in the energy policy of the government which intends to make Taiwan a nuclear-free country by 2025. If we are unable to secure reliable and uninterrupted supply of electricity to power our manufacturing fabs within Taiwan, our ability to satisfy the orders of our customers will be severely undercut.

One or more natural disasters, shortage or interruptions to the supply of utilities (such as shortages in electricity caused by a nuclear-free energy policy) that results in a prolonged disruption to our operations, or the operations of our customers or suppliers, may adversely affect the results of our operations and financial conditions.

Our failure to comply with applicable environmental and climate related laws and regulations, as well as international laws, regulations and accords to which we are subject, could also harm our business and operational results.

The manufacturing, assembling and testing of our products require the use of metals, chemicals, minerals and materials that are subject to environmental, climate-related, health and safety, and humanitarian conflict-free sourcing laws (such as the U.S. SEC rule for filing Form SD to disclose the origins of certain strategic minerals), regulations and guidelines issued worldwide. Although we may be eligible for various exemptions and/or extensions of time for compliance, our failure to comply with any of these applicable laws or regulations could result in:

significant penalties and legal liabilities, such as the denial of import permits;
the temporary or permanent suspension of production of the affected products;
unfavorable alterations in our manufacturing, fabrication and assembly and test processes;
challenges from our customers that place us at a significant competitive disadvantage, such as loss of actual or potential sales contracts in case we are unable to satisfy the conditions regarding environmental laws or requirements by our customers;
restrictions on our operations or sales;
loss of tax benefits, including termination of current tax incentives, disqualification of tax credit application and repayment of the tax benefits that we are not entitled to; and
damages to our goodwill and reputation.

Existing and future environmental and climate related laws and regulations as well as applicable international accords to which we are subject, could also require us, among other things, to do the following: (a) purchase, use or install expensive pollution control, reduction or remediation equipment; (b) implement climate change mitigation programs and abatement or reduction of greenhouse gas emissions programs, or carbon credit trading programs; (c) modify our product designs and manufacturing processes, or incur other significant expenses associated with such laws and regulations such as obtaining substitute raw materials or chemicals that may cost more or be less available for our operations. It is still unclear whether such necessary actions would affect the reliability or efficiency of our products and services.

The above contingencies resulting from the actual and potential impact of local or international laws and regulations, as well as international accords on environmental or climate change, could harm our business and operational results by increasing our expenses or requiring us to alter our manufacturing and assembly and test processes. For further details, please see our compliance record with Taiwan and international environmental and climate related laws and regulations in Item 4. Information on The Company Environmental Regulations.

Climate change, other environmental concerns and green initiatives also present other commercial challenges, economic risks and physical risks that could harm our operational results or affect the manner in which we conduct our business.

Increasing climate change and environmental concerns could affect the results of our operations if any of our customers request that we provide products and services that exceed any existing standard(s) of environmental compliance. If we are unable to offer such products or offer products that are compliant, but are not as reliable due to the lack of reasonably available alternative technologies or materials, we may lose market share to our competitors.

In addition, our inability to timely obtain environmental related approvals needed to undertake the development and construction of a new fab or expansion project may delay, limit, or increase the cost of our expansion plans that could also in turn adversely affect our business and operational results. In light of increased public interest in environmental issues, our operations and expansion plans may be adversely affected or delayed responding to public concern and social environmental pressures even if we comply with all applicable laws and regulations.

Further, energy costs in general could increase significantly due to climate change, environmental concern and other regulations. Therefore, our energy costs may increase significantly if utility or power companies pass on their costs, either fully or partially, such as those associated with carbon taxes, emission caps and carbon credit trading programs. For further details, please see details of our business continuity management of climate change policy in Item 4. Information on The Company Environmental Regulation.

To mitigate risks resulting from climate change, we continue to actively carry out energy conservation measures and voluntary perfluorinated compounds (PFC) emission reduction projects, and conduct greenhouse gas inventories verification every year.

Adverse fluctuations in exchange rates could decrease our operating margin and/or revenues.

Over one-half of our capital expenditures and manufacturing costs are denominated in currencies other than NT dollars, primarily in U.S. dollars, Japanese yen and Euros. In 2015, more than 90% of our revenues were denominated in U.S. dollars and currencies other than NT dollars. Therefore, any significant fluctuation to our disadvantage in such exchange rates would have an adverse effect on our financial condition. For example, because our functional currency is denominated in NT dollars, every 1% depreciation of the U.S. dollar against the NT dollar exchange rate may result in approximately 0.4 percentage point decrease in our operating margin based on our 2015 results.

Conversely, if the U.S. dollar appreciates significantly versus other major currencies, the demand for the products and services of our customers and for our goods and services will likely decrease, which will negatively affect our revenues. Please see Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk for a further discussion on the possible impact of other market factors on our results of operations.

Fluctuations in inflationary and deflationary expectations and resulting general market volatility could negatively affect costs of and demand for our products and services, which may harm our financial results.

The global economy is becoming more vulnerable to sudden unexpected fluctuations in inflationary and deflationary expectations and conditions. Both high inflation and deflation adversely affect an economy, at both the macro and micro levels, by reducing economic efficiency and disrupting saving and investment decisions. Recently, dramatic fall in oil prices and negative interest rates in major world economies have exacerbated global fluctuations in inflationary and deflationary expectations. These macro-economic changes have resulted in general market volatility across all assets classes. Such fluctuations and volatility may negatively affect the costs of our operations and the business operations of our customers who may be forced to plan their purchases of our goods and services within an uncertain economy. Therefore, the demand for our products and services could unexpectedly fluctuate severely in accordance with expectations of inflation or deflation as affected by macro market volatility. Please see Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects Inflation & Deflation for a further discussion.

Amendments to existing tax regulations or new tax legislation in the R.O.C. may have an adverse effect on our net income.

While we are subject to tax laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we operate or conduct business, our principal operations are conducted in the R.O.C. and we are exposed primarily to taxes levied by the government of the R.O.C. Any unfavorable changes of tax laws and regulations in this jurisdiction could increase our effective tax rate and have an adverse effect on our operating results. See Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects Taxation for further discussion of significant tax regulation changes.

If certain of our strategic investments fail to achieve their respective forecasted returns or objectives, we may suffer financial losses that may materially lower our profit margin and distributable earnings.

From time to time, we have made or will make a series of strategic investments. There is no guarantee that any of such investments will be successful commercially. Any such investment will incur risks, which may result in losses even with careful management. Any such loss resulting from such investments may result in significant impairment charges, lower profit margin and ultimately lower distributable earnings.

If our internet security systems succumb to cyber attacks initiated by third party entities worldwide, our manufacturing as well as daily operations may be severely interrupted or shutdown indefinitely that may materially harm our financial results, our commitments to our customers and stakeholders, and corporate goodwill.

Even though we have established a comprehensive internet and computing security network, we cannot guarantee that our computing systems which control or maintain vital corporate functions like our manufacturing operations and enterprise accounting would be completely immune to crippling cyber viral attacks launched by third party to gain unauthorized access to our internal network systems to sabotage our operations and goodwill. In the event of a serious cyber attack, our systems may lose important corporate data and our production lines may be shutdown indefinitely pending the resolution of such attack. These cyber attacks may also attempt to steal our trade secrets and other intellectual properties and other sensitive information, such as personal information of our employees and proprietary information of our customers and other stakeholders. Malicious hackers may also try to introduce computer viruses or corrupted software into our network systems to disrupt our operations or spy for sensitive information. These attacks may result in us having to pay damages for our delayed or disrupted orders or incur significant expenses in attempting to re-establish control over our network. If we are not able to timely resolve the technical difficulties caused by such cyber attacks, our financial results as well as our commitments to our customers and other stakeholders may be materially impaired.

Risks Relating to Ownership of ADSs

Your voting rights as a holder of ADSs will be limited.

Holders of American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) evidencing ADSs may exercise voting rights with respect to the common shares represented by these ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of our ADS deposit agreement. The deposit agreement provides that, upon receipt of notice of any meeting of holders of our common shares, the depositary bank will, as soon as practicable thereafter, mail to the holders (i) the notice of the meeting sent by us, (ii) voting instruction forms and (iii) a statement as to the manner in which instructions may be given by the holders.

ADS holders will not generally be able to exercise the voting rights attaching to the deposited securities on an individual basis. According to the provisions of our ADS deposit agreement, the voting rights attaching to the deposited securities must be exercised as to all matters subject to a vote of shareholders collectively in the same manner, except in the case of an election of directors. Election of directors is by means of cumulative voting. See Item 10. Additional Information Voting of Deposited Securities for a more detailed discussion of the manner in which a holder of ADSs can exercise its voting rights.

You may not be able to participate in rights offerings and may experience dilution of your holdings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under our ADS deposit agreement, the depositary bank will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (the Securities Act), with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. Although we may be eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions for rights offerings by certain foreign companies, we can give no assurance that we can establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have such a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

If the depositary bank is unable to sell rights that are not exercised or not distributed or if the sale is not lawful or reasonably practicable, it will allow the rights to lapse, in which case you will receive no value for these rights.

The value of your investment may be reduced by possible future sales of common shares or ADSs by us or our shareholders or fluctuations in foreign exchange.

One or more of our existing shareholders may, from time to time, dispose of significant numbers of our common shares or ADSs. For example, the National Development Fund of Taiwan, R.O.C. which owned 6.38% of TSMCs outstanding shares as of February 29, 2016, has from time to time in the past sold our shares in the form of ADSs in several transactions.

We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future sales of ADSs or common shares, or the availability of ADSs or common shares for future sale, will have on the market price of ADSs or common shares prevailing from time to time. Sales of substantial amounts of ADSs or common shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could depress the prevailing market price of our ADSs or common shares. In addition, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the NT dollar may affect the U.S. dollar value of our common shares and the market price of the ADSs and of any cash dividends paid in NT dollars on our common shares represented by ADSs.

The market value of our shares may fluctuate due to the volatility of, and government intervention in, the R.O.C. securities market.

The Taiwan Stock Exchange experiences from time to time substantial fluctuations in the prices and volumes of sales of listed securities. There are currently limits on the range of daily price movements on the Taiwan Stock Exchange. In response to past declines and volatility in the securities markets in Taiwan, and in line with similar activities by other countries in Asia, the government of the R.O.C. formed the Stabilization Fund, which has purchased and may from time to time purchase shares of Taiwan companies to support these markets. In addition, other funds associated with the R.O.C. government have in the past purchased, and may from time to time purchase, shares of Taiwan companies on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or other markets. These funds have disposed and may from time to time dispose shares of Taiwan companies so purchased at a later time. In the future, market activity by government entities, or the perception that such activity is taking place, may take place or has ceased, may cause fluctuations in the market prices of our ADSs and common shares.

Our History and Structure

Our legal and commercial name is (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited). We believe we are currently the worlds largest dedicated foundry in the semiconductor industry. We were founded in 1987 as a joint venture among the R.O.C. government and other private investors and were incorporated in the R.O.C. on February 21, 1987. Our common shares have been listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange since September 5, 1994, and our ADSs have been listed on the New York Stock Exchange since October 8, 1997.

Our Principal Office

Our principal executive office is located at No. 8, Li-Hsin Road 6, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China. Our telephone number at that office is (886-3) 563-6688. Our web site is . Information contained on our website is not incorporated herein by reference and does not constitute part of this annual report.

Business Overview of the Company

As a foundry, we manufacture semiconductors using our manufacturing processes for our customers based on their own or third parties proprietary integrated circuit designs. We offer a comprehensive range of wafer fabrication processes, including processes to manufacture CMOS logic, mixed-signal, radio frequency, embedded memory, BiCMOS mixed-signal and other semiconductors. We estimate that our revenue market segment share among total foundries worldwide was 55% in 2015. We also offer design, mask making, bumping, probing, and assembly and testing services.

We believe that our large capacity, particularly for advanced technologies, is a major competitive advantage. Please see Manufacturing Capacity and Technology and Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans for a further discussion of our capacity.

We count among our customers many of the worlds leading semiconductor companies, ranging from fabless semiconductor, system companies to integrated device manufacturers, including, but not limited to, Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Broadcom Corporation, Huawei Tech, Marvell Technology Group Ltd., MediaTek Inc., NVIDIA Corporation, NXP Semiconductors N.V., OmniVision Technologies Inc., Qualcomm Inc., Sony Corporation, Spreadtrum Communications, Inc. and Texas Instruments Inc. Fabless semiconductor and system companies accounted for approximately 81%, and integrated device manufacturers accounted for approximately 18% of our net revenue in 2015.

Our Semiconductor Facilities

We currently operate one 150mm wafer fab, six 200mm wafer fabs and three 300mm wafer fabs. Our corporate headquarters and five of our fabs are located in the Hsinchu Science Park, two fabs are located in the Southern Taiwan Science Park, one fab is located in the Central Taiwan Science Park, one fab is located in the United States, and one fab is located in Shanghai. Our corporate headquarters and our five fabs in Hsinchu occupy parcels of land of a total of approximately 613,804 square meters. We lease these parcels from the Hsinchu Science Park Administration in Hsinchu under agreements that will be up for renewal between March 2017 and December 2034. We have leased from the Central Taiwan Science Park Administration a parcel of land of approximately 564,619 square meters for our Taichung fabs under agreements that will be up for renewal between September 2029 and December 2034. We have leased from the Southern Taiwan Science Park Administration approximately 765,420 square meters of land for our fabs in the Southern Taiwan Science Park under agreements that will be up for renewal between July 2017 and March 2035. We also own approximately 143,215 square meters of land located in Miaoli, Taiwan. WaferTech owns a parcel of land of approximately 1,052,186 square meters in the State of Washington in the United States, where the WaferTech fab and related offices are located. TSMC China owns the land use rights of 369,087 square meters of land in Shanghai, where Fab 10 and related offices are located. Other than certain equipment under leases located at testing areas, we own all of the buildings and equipment for our fabs. In addition, as part of our plan to expand our operations in China, we have applied to and received permission from the Investment Commission of the R.O.C. Ministry of Economic Affairs on February 3, 2016, and entered into an investment agreement with the municipal government of Nanjing, China on March 28, 2016, to establish a wholly-owned subsidiary managing 300mm wafer fab and design service center with volume production of 16nm process technology scheduled to begin in the second half of 2018. Also, the total capital investment will be approximately US$3 billion.

Semiconductor Manufacturing Capacity and Technology

We manufacture semiconductors on silicon wafers based on proprietary circuitry designs provided by our customers or third party designers. Two key factors that characterize a foundrys manufacturing capabilities are output capacity and fabrication process technologies. Since our establishment, we have possessed the largest capacity among the worlds dedicated foundries. We also believe that we are the technology leader among the dedicated foundries in terms of our net revenue of advanced semiconductors with a resolution of 28-nanometer and below, and are one of the leaders in the semiconductor manufacturing industry generally. We are the first dedicated foundry with proven low-k interconnect technology in commercial production from the 0.13 micron node down to 28-nanometer node. In 2014, we started volume production of 20-nanometer technology and continued the development of 16- and 10-nanometer technologies. In 2015, we started volume production of 16-nanometer technology and continued the development of 10- and 7-nanometer technologies.

The following table lists our fabs and those of our affiliates, together with the year of commencement of commercial production, and the most advanced technology for volume production:

Fab (1)

Year of

The most advanced technology for volume production (2)


1990 450


1995 150


1997 150


2000 110


1998 110


2004 150


1998 150


2001 16


2004 16


2012 28
(1) Fab 2 produces 150mm wafers. Fabs 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and Fab 11 (WaferTech) produce 200mm wafers. Fab 12, Fab 14 and Fab 15 produce 300mm wafers. Fabs 2, 3, 5, 8 and 12 are located in Hsinchu Science Park. Fab 6 and Fab 14 are located in the Southern Taiwan Science Park. Fab 15 is located in Central Taiwan Science Park. Fab 11 is located in the Washington State, United States and Fab 10 is located in Shanghai, China.

In 2015, our annual capacity (in 300mm equivalent wafers) was approximately 9 million wafers, compared to approximately 8 million wafers in 2014. This increase was primarily from the expansion of our 16-nanometer advanced technology.

Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans

We perform long term market demand forecast for our products and services to manage our overall capacity and technology upgrade plans. According to our current market demand forecasts, we intend to maintain our strategy of expanding manufacturing capacity and upgrading manufacturing technologies to meet both the fabrication and the technology needs of our customers.

Our capital expenditures in 2013, 2014 and 2015 were NT$287,595 million, NT$288,540 million and NT$257,517 million (US$8,123 million, translated from a weighted average exchange rate of NT$31.7 to US$1.00), respectively. Our capital expenditures in 2016 are expected to be approximately US$9 billion to US$10 billion, which, depending on market conditions, may be adjusted later. Our capital expenditures for 2013 were funded by our operating cash flow and the issuance of corporate bonds and the capital expenditures for 2014 and 2015 were funded by operating cash flow. Our capital expenditures for 2016 are expected to be funded primarily by our operating cash flow. In 2016, we anticipate our capital expenditures to focus primarily on the following:

adding production capacity to our 300mm wafer fabs;
developing new process technologies in 10-nanometer node and below;
expanding buildings/facilities for Fab 12, Fab 14, Fab 15, and a 300mm wafer fab in Nanjing, China;
other research and development projects; and
capacity expansion for mask and backend operations.

These investment plans are still preliminary and may change according to market conditions.

Markets and Customers

The primary customers of our foundry services are fabless semiconductor companies, systems companies and integrated device manufacturers. The following table presents the breakdown of net revenue, including foundry services and others, by type of customers during the last three years:

Year ended December 31,
2013 2014 2015
Customer Type Net Revenue Percentage Net Revenue Percentage Net Revenue Percentage
(NT$ in millions, except percentages)

Fabless semiconductor companies/systems companies

519,142 87.0% 646,936 84.8% 686,508 81.4%

Integrated device manufacturers

76,967 12.9% 114,620 15.0% 155,685 18.4%


915 0.1% 1,250 0.2% 1,304 0.2%


597,024 100.0% 762,806 100.0% 843,497 100.0%

We categorize our net revenue mainly based on the country in which the customer is headquartered, which may be different from the net revenue for the countries to which we actually sell or ship our products or different from where products are actually ordered. Under this approach, the following table presents a regional geographic breakdown of...