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FORM 10-Q

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2017

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission File Number: 001-38017

SNAP INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

45-5452795

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organizations)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

63 Market Street, Venice, California 90291

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(310) 399-3339

(Registrant's telephone, including area code)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☐ No ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

SNAP INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

3

Note Regarding User Metrics and Other Data

4

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

6

Consolidated Balance Sheets

6

Consolidated Statements of Operations

7

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

8

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

9

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

10

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

22

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

36

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

37

PART II - OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

38

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

38

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

64

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

64

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

64

Item 5.

Other Information

64

Item 6.

Exhibits

65

Signatures

66

Exhibit Index

67

Snap Inc., “Snapchat,” and our other registered and common-law trade names, trademarks, and service marks appearing in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are the property of Snap Inc. or our subsidiaries.

2

NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The following discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will,” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, including risks described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q regarding, among other things:

We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. And while we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans,

3

intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments.

Investors and others should note that we may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (investor.snap.com), SEC filings, webcasts, press releases, and conference calls. We use these mediums, including Snapchat and our website, to communicate with our members and public about our company, our products, and other issues. It is possible that the information that we make available may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website.

NOTE REGARDING USER METRICS AND OTHER DATA

We define a Daily Active User, or DAU, as a registered Snapchat user who opens the Snapchat application at least once during a defined 24-hour period. We measure average Daily Active Users for a particular quarter by calculating the average Daily Active Users for that quarter. We also break out Daily Active Users by geography because certain markets have a greater revenue opportunity and lower bandwidth costs. We define average revenue per user, or ARPU, as quarterly revenue divided by the average Daily Active Users. For purposes of calculating ARPU, revenue by user geography is apportioned to each region based on our determination of the geographic location in which advertising impressions are delivered, as this approximates revenue based on user activity. This allocation differs from our revenue by geography disclosure in the notes to our consolidated financial statements, where revenue is based on the billing address of the advertising customer. For information concerning these metrics as measured by us, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Unless otherwise stated, statistical information regarding our users and their activities is determined by calculating the daily average of the selected activity for the most recently completed quarter included in this report.

While these metrics are determined based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates of our user base for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring how our products are used across large populations globally. For example, there may be individuals who have multiple Snapchat accounts, even though we forbid that in our Terms of Service and implement measures to detect and suppress that behavior. We have not determined the number of such multiple accounts. Our user metrics are also affected by technology on certain mobile devices that automatically runs in the background of our Snapchat application when another phone function is used, and this activity can cause our system to miscount the user metrics associated with such account. Changes in our products, mobile operating systems, or metric tracking system, or the introduction of new products, may impact our ability to accurately determine Daily Active Users or other metrics and we may not determine such inaccuracies promptly. We believe that we don’t capture all data regarding all our Daily Active Users. For example, technical issues may not record data from every user’s application. While we believe this underreporting is generally immaterial, we are unable to precisely determine the level of underreporting and for some periods the underreporting may be material. We continually seek to address these technical issues and improve our accuracy, but given the complexity of the systems involved and the rapidly changing nature of mobile devices and systems, we expect underreporting to continue. We do not adjust our reported metrics to reflect this underreporting.

Some of our demographic data may be incomplete or inaccurate. For example, because users self-report their dates of birth, our age-demographic data may differ from our users’ actual ages. And because users who signed up for Snapchat before June 2013 were not asked to supply their date of birth, we exclude those users and estimate their ages based on a sample of the self-reported ages we do have. If our Daily Active Users provide us with incorrect or incomplete information regarding their age or other attributes, then our estimates may prove inaccurate and fail to meet investor expectations.

In the past we have relied on third-party analytics providers to calculate our metrics, but today we rely primarily on our analytics platform that we developed and operate. For example, before June 2015, we used a third party that counted a Daily Active User when the application was opened or a notification was received via the application on any device. We now use an analytics platform that we developed and operate and we count a Daily Active User only when a user opens the application and only once per user per day. We believe this methodology more accurately measures our user engagement. We have multiple pipelines of user data that we use to determine whether a user has opened the application during a particular day, and thus is a Daily Active User. This provides redundancy in the event one pipeline of data were to become unavailable for technical reasons, and also gives us redundant data to help measure how users interact with our application.

4

Additionally, to align our pre-June 2015 Daily Active Users with this new methodology, we reduced our pre-June 2015 Daily Active Users by 4.8%, the amount by which we estimated the data generated by the third party was overstated. As a result, our metrics may not be comparable to prior periods.

If we fail to maintain an effective analytics platform, our metrics calculations may be inaccurate. We regularly review, have adjusted in the past, and are likely in the future to adjust our processes for calculating our internal metrics to improve their accuracy. As a result of such adjustments, our Daily Active Users or other metrics may not be comparable to those in prior periods. Our measures of Daily Active Users may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly titled metrics of our competitors due to differences in methodology or data used.

5

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Snap Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

June 30,

2017

December 31,

2016

(Unaudited)

Assets

Current assets

Cash and cash equivalents

$

501,677

$

150,121

Marketable securities

2,295,919

837,247

Accounts receivable, net of allowance

171,525

162,659

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

77,777

29,958

Total current assets

3,046,898

1,179,985

Property and equipment, net

128,031

100,585

Intangible assets, net

136,005

75,982

Goodwill

502,825

319,137

Other assets

61,715

47,103

Total assets

$

3,875,474

$

1,722,792

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

Current liabilities

Accounts payable

$

17,770

$

8,419

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

240,539

148,325

Total current liabilities

258,309

156,744

Other liabilities

76,258

47,134

Total liabilities

334,567

203,878

Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)

Stockholders’ equity

Convertible voting preferred stock, Series A, A-1, and B, $0.00001 par value. No shares and 146,962 shares authorized, issued, and outstanding at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. Liquidation preference of $95,175 at December 31, 2016.

1

Convertible non-voting preferred stock, Series C, $0.00001 par value. No shares and 16,000 shares authorized, issued, and outstanding at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. Liquidation preference of $54,543 at December 31, 2016.

Convertible non-voting preferred stock, Series D, E, and F, $0.00001 par value. No shares and 83,851 shares authorized, issued, and outstanding at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively.

2

Series FP convertible voting preferred stock, $0.00001 par value. No shares and 260,888 shares authorized at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. No shares and 215,888 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively.

2

Class A non-voting common stock, $0.00001 par value. 3,000,000 shares authorized, 682,588 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2017, and 1,500,000 shares authorized, 504,902 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2016.

7

5

Class B voting common stock, $0.00001 par value. 700,000 shares authorized, 281,526 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2017, and 1,500,000 shares authorized, 31,469 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2016.

3

Class C voting common stock, $0.00001 par value. 260,888 shares authorized, 215,888 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2017, and 260,888 shares authorized and no shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2016.

2

Additional paid-in capital

7,400,842

2,728,823

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

3,590

(2,057

)

Accumulated deficit

(3,863,537

)

(1,207,862

)

Total stockholders’ equity

3,540,907

1,518,914

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

3,875,474

$

1,722,792

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

6

Snap Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended June 30,

Six Months Ended June 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

Revenue

$

181,671

$

71,798

$

331,319

$

110,596

Costs and expenses:

Cost of revenue

152,148

94,757

315,506

170,530

Research and development

255,735

36,052

1,061,583

64,150

Sales and marketing

90,903

24,587

310,636

39,324

General and administrative

131,903

32,261

1,306,379

56,272

Total costs and expenses

630,689

187,657

2,994,104

330,276

Loss from operations

(449,018

)

(115,859

)

(2,662,785

)

(219,680

)

Interest income

6,349

871

8,773

1,230

Interest expense

(998

)

(1,693

)

Other income (expense), net

786

(939

)

973

(1,932

)

Loss before income taxes

(442,881

)

(115,927

)

(2,654,732

)

(220,382

)

Income tax benefit (expense)

(212

)

33

2,802

(88

)

Net loss

$

(443,093

)

$

(115,894

)

$

(2,651,930

)

$

(220,470

)

Net loss per share attributable to Class A, Class B, and Class C common stockholders (Note 2):

Basic

$

(0.36

)

$

(0.14

)

$

(2.43

)

$

(0.28

)

Diluted

$

(0.36

)

$

(0.14

)

$

(2.43

)

$

(0.28

)

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

7

Snap Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended June 30,

Six Months Ended June 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

Net loss

$

(443,093

)

$

(115,894

)

$

(2,651,930

)

$

(220,470

)

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities, net of tax

(772

)

310

(896

)

398

Foreign currency translation

5,997

510

6,543

486

Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax

5,225

820

5,647

884

Total comprehensive income (loss)

$

(437,868

)

$

(115,074

)

$

(2,646,283

)

$

(219,586

)

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

8

Snap Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

Six Months Ended June 30,

2017

2016

Cash flows from operating activities

Net loss

$

(2,651,930

)

$

(220,470

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

Depreciation and amortization

25,035

11,045

Stock-based compensation

2,237,149

10,280

Deferred income taxes

(1,765

)

(204

)

Other

(1,672

)

2,018

Change in operating assets and liabilities, net of effect of acquisitions:

Accounts receivable, net of allowance

(8,209

)

(24,042

)

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

(47,835

)

(8,236

)

Other assets

(10,108

)

(1,543

)

Accounts payable

9,317

(240

)

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

82,190

3,369

Other liabilities

3,257

1,372

Net cash used in operating activities

(364,571

)

(226,651

)

Cash flows from investing activities

Purchases of property and equipment

(37,358

)

(28,873

)

Purchases of intangible assets

(7,720

)

(562

)

Non-marketable investments

(7,530

)

(4,070

)

Cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired

(224,176

)

(50,936

)

Issuance of notes receivable from officers/stockholders

(15,000

)

Purchases of marketable securities

(2,742,370

)

(967,402

)

Sales of marketable securities

237,095

79,075

Maturities of marketable securities

1,047,479

9,500

Change in restricted cash

9,899

(5,068

)

Net cash used in investing activities

(1,724,681

)

(983,336

)

Cash flows from financing activities

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options

783

Stock repurchases from employees for tax withholdings

(208,407

)

Proceeds from issuance of Class A common stock in initial public offering, net of underwriting commissions

2,657,797

Proceeds from issuances of preferred stock, net of issuance costs

1,157,147

Payments of initial public offering issuance costs

(9,365

)

Net cash provided by financing activities

2,440,808

1,157,147

Change in cash and cash equivalents

351,556

(52,840

)

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period

150,121

640,810

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period

$

501,677

$

587,970

Supplemental disclosures

Cash paid for income taxes

$

5,490

$

4

Supplemental disclosures of non-cash activities

Issuance of Class B common stock related to acquisitions

$

$

13,097

Purchase consideration liabilities related to acquisitions

$

11,242

$

6,000

Construction in progress related to financing lease obligations

$

683

$

761

Net change in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities related to property and equipment additions

$

(3,743

)

$

(404

)

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Snap Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Snap Inc. is a camera company.

Snap Inc. (“we,” “our,” or “us”) was formed as Future Freshman, LLC, a California limited liability company, in 2010. We changed our name to Toyopa Group, LLC in 2011, incorporated as Snapchat, Inc., a Delaware corporation, in 2012, and changed our name to Snap Inc. in 2016. Snap Inc. is headquartered in Venice, California. Our flagship product, Snapchat, is a camera application that was created to help people communicate through short videos and images called “Snaps.”

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information. Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Snap Inc. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Our fiscal year ends on December 31. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our prospectus dated March 1, 2017, as filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (File No. 333-215866) (“Prospectus”).

In our opinion, the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature necessary for the fair presentation of our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2017.

Other than described below, there have been no changes to our significant accounting policies described in our Prospectus that have had a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related notes.

Initial Public Offering

In March 2017, we completed our initial public offering (“IPO”) in which we issued and sold 160.3 million shares of Class A common stock, inclusive of the over-allotment, at a public offering price of $17.00 per share and excluding shares sold in the IPO by certain of our existing stockholders. We received net proceeds of $2.6 billion after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of .1 million and other offering expenses of $14.7 million. On the closing of the IPO, all shares of our then-outstanding convertible preferred stock other than Series FP preferred stock automatically converted into an aggregate of 246.8 million shares of Class B common stock and all outstanding shares of Series FP preferred stock automatically converted into 215.9 million shares of Class C common stock. Following the IPO, we have three classes of authorized common stock – Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock.

Restricted stock units (“RSUs”) granted to employees before January 1, 2017 (“Pre-2017 RSUs”) included both service-based and performance conditions to vest in the underlying common stock. The performance condition related to these awards was satisfied on the effectiveness of the registration statement for our IPO, which occurred in March 2017. On the effectiveness of the registration statement for our IPO, we recognized $1.3 billion of stock-based compensation expense for Pre-2017 RSUs. To meet the related tax withholding requirements, we withheld 12.1 million of the 26.7 million shares of common stock issued. Based on the public offering price of $17.00 per share, the tax withholding obligation for these vested Pre-2017 RSUs was $206.6 million.

In addition, on the closing of the IPO, our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) received an RSU award (“CEO award”) for 37.4 million shares of Series FP preferred stock, which automatically converted into an equivalent number of shares of Class C common stock on the closing of the IPO. The CEO award represented 3.0% of all outstanding shares on the closing of the IPO, including shares sold by us in the IPO and vested stock options and RSUs, net of shares withheld to satisfy tax withholding obligations, on the closing of the IPO. The CEO award vested immediately on the closing of the IPO, and such shares will be delivered to the CEO in equal quarterly installments over three years beginning in the third full calendar quarter following the IPO. There is no continuing service requirement for our CEO. The stock-based compensation expense recognized related to the CEO award was $636.6 million, which is based on the vesting of 37.4 million shares of Class C common stock on the closing of the IPO, at the public offering price of $17.00 per share.

10

The future tax benefits on settlement of the above RSUs is not expected to be material as currently we have established valuation allowances to reduce our net deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. The majority of the future tax benefits that arise on settlement of the above RSUs are in jurisdictions for which our net deferred tax assets have a full valuation allowance.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements. Management’s estimates are based on historical information available as of the date of the consolidated financial statements and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Key estimates relate primarily to determining the fair value of assets and liabilities assumed in business combinations, evaluation of contingencies, uncertain tax positions, and the fair value of stock-based awards. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates our estimates compared to historical experience and trends, which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued an Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business. The amendments in this update clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. The definition of a business affects many areas of accounting including acquisitions, disposals, goodwill, and consolidation. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and should be applied prospectively on or after the effective date, with early adoption permitted. We plan to adopt ASU 2017-01 effective January 1, 2018.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, which requires restricted cash to be presented with cash and cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows and disclosure of how the statement of cash flows reconciles to the balance sheet if restricted cash is shown separately from cash and cash equivalents on the balance sheet. ASU 2016-18 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. We are in the process of evaluating the impact of this accounting standards update on our consolidated financial statements.

In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfer of Assets Other than Inventory, which requires the recognition of the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset, other than inventory, when the transfer occurs. ASU 2016-16 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We adopted ASU 2016-16 on January 1, 2017 and the adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements due to a valuation allowance on our net deferred tax assets.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. ASU 2016-15 provides guidance for targeted changes with respect to how cash receipts and cash payments are classified in the statements of cash flows, with the objective of reducing diversity in practice. ASU 2016-15 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. We are in the process of evaluating the impact of this accounting standards update on our consolidated statements of cash flows.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and requires expanded disclosures about leasing arrangements. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We are in the process of evaluating the impact of this accounting standards update on our consolidated financial statements.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). Topic 606 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in ASU Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, and requires the recognition of revenue when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. Topic 606 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period, with early adoption permitted for annual

11

reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or modified retrospective (cumulative effect) transition method.

The most significant aspect of our evaluation of Topic 606 related to ASU No. 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net). This implementation guidance discusses principal versus agent considerations and gross versus net revenue reporting, including specific indicators to assist in the determination of whether we control a specified good or service before it is transferred to the customer. Through our evaluation, we have concluded Snap-sold revenue will be reported on a gross basis and partner-sold revenue will be reported on a net basis, which is consistent with our current revenue recognition policies. We concluded that we control the Snap-sold advertising campaign before it is transferred to the customer because we provide the advertising campaign on Snapchat and have discretion in establishing the price of the advertisements. We concluded that the partner controls significant aspects of the partner-sold advertising campaign before it is transferred to the customer and the partner has discretion in establishing price with the advertiser.

We do not expect the new standard to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. We expect to adopt Topic 606 during the first quarter of 2018. We are still evaluating the use of either the retrospective or modified retrospective transition method.

2. Net Loss per Share

We compute net loss per share using the two-class method required for multiple classes of common stock and participating securities. Our participating securities include any shares issued on the early exercise of stock options subject to repurchase because holders of such shares have non-forfeitable dividend rights in the event a dividend is paid on common stock. Before the IPO, our participating securities also included Series D, E, F, and FP preferred stock and Series A, A-1, B, and C convertible preferred stock. The rights, including the liquidation and dividend rights, of the Class A common stock and Class B common stock, and the Series D, E, F, and FP preferred stock were substantially identical, other than voting rights. Accordingly, the Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and the Series D, E, F, and FP shared equally in our net losses. The holders of early exercised shares subject to repurchase and the holders of Series A, A-1, B, and C convertible preferred stock did not have a contractual obligation to share in our losses, and as a result our net losses were not allocated to these participating securities.

In connection with our IPO, our Series D, E, and F preferred stock converted on a one-to-one basis into Class B common stock, and our Series FP preferred stock converted on a one-to-one basis into Class C common stock. The liquidation and dividend rights of the aforementioned preferred series are substantially identical to the rights of the common classes into which they converted. Accordingly, we have presented the Series D, E, and F preferred stock outstanding before the IPO together with the Class B common stock, and the Series FP preferred stock outstanding before the IPO together with the Class C common stock for purposes of calculating net loss per share. The prior period presentation has been adjusted to conform to our current period presentation.

Also in connection with our IPO, our Series A, A-1, B, and C preferred stock converted on a one-to-one basis into Class B common stock. The shares of Class B common stock that resulted from the conversion of the Series A, A-1, B, and C preferred stock are weighted in the denominator of net loss per share for Class B common stock for the portion of the time outstanding subsequent to our IPO.

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to each class of stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of stock outstanding during the period. Vested RSUs that have not been settled, including the vested CEO award, have been included in the appropriate common share class used to calculate basic net loss per share.

For the calculation of diluted net loss per share, net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for basic net loss per share is adjusted by the effect of dilutive securities, including awards under our equity compensation plans. Diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the resulting net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of fully diluted common shares outstanding. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016 our potential dilutive shares relating to stock options, RSUs, and common stock subject to repurchase, and, for the 2016 periods, shares of convertible Series A, A-1, B, and C preferred stock were not included in the computation of diluted net loss per share as the effect of including these shares in the calculation would have been anti-dilutive.

12

The numerators and denominators of the basic and diluted net loss per share computations for our common stock are calculated as follows for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016:

Three Months Ended June 30,

Six Months Ended June 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

(in thousands, except per share data)

Class A Common(1)

Class B Common(2)

Class C Common(3)

Class A Common

Class B Common(2)

Class C Common(3)

Class A Common(1)

Class B Common(2)

Class C Common(3)

Class A Common

Class B Common(2)

Class C Common(3)

Numerator:

Net loss

$

(248,613

)

$

(102,730

)

$

(91,750

)

$

(70,050

)

$

(14,744

)

$

(31,100

)

$

(1,524,926

)

$

(543,768

)

$

(583,236

)

$

(133,924

)

$

(25,314

)

$

(61,232

)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$

(248,613

)

$

(102,730

)

$

(91,750

)

$

(70,050

)

$

(14,744

)

$

(31,100

)

$

(1,524,926

)

$

(543,768

)

$

(583,236

)

$

(133,924

)

$

(25,314

)

$

(61,232

)

Denominator:

Basic shares:

Weighted-average common shares - Basic

686,456

283,651

253,336

487,398

102,591

216,390

627,209

223,654

239,888

474,784

89,742

217,078

Diluted shares:

Weighted-average common shares - Diluted

686,456

283,651

253,336

487,398

102,591

216,390

627,209

223,654

239,888

474,784

89,742

217,078

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:

Basic

$

(0.36

)

$

(0.36

)

$

(0.36

)

$

(0.14

)

$

(0.14

)

$

(0.14

)

$

(2.43

)

$

(2.43

)

$

(2.43

)

$

(0.28

)

$

(0.28

)

$

(0.28

)

Diluted

$

(0.36

)

$

(0.36

)

$

(0.36

)

$

(0.14

)

$

(0.14

)

$

(0.14

)

$

(2.43

)

$

(2.43

)

$

(2.43

)

$

(0.28

)

$

(0.28

)

$

(0.28

)

The following potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented:

Three and Six Months Ended June 30,

2017

2016

(in thousands)

Convertible voting preferred stock, Series A, A-1 and B

146,962

Convertible non-voting preferred stock, Series C

16,000

Stock options

39,496

43,896

Unvested RSUs not subject to a performance condition

177,400

254

Shares subject to repurchase

949

3. Stockholders’ Equity

We maintain three share-based employee compensation plans: the 2017 Equity Incentive Plan (“2017 Plan”), the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (“2014 Plan”), and the 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (“2012 Plan”, and collectively with the 2017 Plan and the 2014 Plan, the “Stock Plans”). In January 2017, our board of directors adopted the 2017 Plan, and in February 2017 our stockholders approved the 2017 Plan, effective on March 1, 2017, which serves as the successor to the 2014 Plan and

13

2012 Plan and provides for the grant of incentive stock options to employees, including employees of any parent or subsidiary, and for the grant of nonstatutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards, performance stock awards, performance cash awards, and other forms of stock awards to employees, directors, and consultants, including employees and consultants of our affiliates. We do not expect to grant any additional awards under the 2014 Plan or 2012 Plan as of the effective date of the 2017 Plan, other than awards for up to 2,500,000 shares of Class A common stock to our employees and consultants in France under the 2014 Plan. Outstanding awards under the 2014 Plan and 2012 Plan continue to be subject to the terms and conditions of the 2014 Plan and 2012 Plan, respectively. Shares available for grant under the 2014 Plan and 2012 Plan, which were reserved but not issued or subject to outstanding awards under the 2014 Plan or 2012 Plan, respectively, as of the effective date of the 2017 Plan, were added to the reserves of the 2017 Plan.

We have initially reserved 87,270,108 shares of our Class A common stock for future issuance under the 2017 Plan. An additional number of shares of Class A common stock will be added to the 2017 Plan equal to (i) 96,993,064 shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance pursuant to outstanding stock options and unvested RSUs under the 2014 Plan, (ii) 37,228,865 shares of Class A common stock issuable on conversion of Class B common stock underlying stock options and unvested RSUs outstanding the 2012 Plan, (iii) 17,858,235 shares of Class A common stock that were reserved for issuance under the 2014 Plan as of the date the 2017 Plan became effective, (iv) 11,004,580 shares of Class A common stock issuable on conversion Class B common stock that were reserved for issuance under the 2012 Plan as of the date the 2017 Plan became effective, and (v) a maximum of 86,737,997 shares of Class A common stock that will be added pursuant to the following sentence. With respect to each share that returns to the 2017 Plan pursuant to (i) and (ii) of the prior sentence that was associated with an award that was outstanding under the 2014 Plan and 2012 Plan as of October 31, 2016, an additional share of Class A common stock will be added to the share reserve of the 2017 Plan, up to a maximum of 86,737,997 shares. The number of shares reserved for issuance under the 2017 Plan will increase automatically on the first day of January of each of 2018 through 2027 by the lesser of (i) 5% of the total number of shares of our capital stock outstanding on December 31st of the immediately preceding calendar year and (ii) a number determined by our board of directors. The maximum term for stock options granted under the 2017 Plan may not exceed ten years from the date of grant. The 2017 Plan will terminate ten years from the date our board of directors approved the plan, unless it is terminated earlier by our board of directors.

The following table summarizes the RSU award activity under the Stock Plans during the six months ended June 30, 2017:

Class A

Outstanding

RSUs

Class B

Outstanding

RSUs

Weighted-

Average

Grant Date

Fair Value

per RSU

(in thousands, except per share data)

Unvested at December 31, 2016

152,114

28,581

$

15.50

Granted

39,700

$

17.41

Vested

(25,210

)

(13,981

)

$

14.99

Forfeited

(3,536

)

(268

)

$

15.51

Unvested at June 30, 2017

163,068

14,332

$

16.04

Total unrecognized compensation cost related to Pre-2017 RSUs was $1.0 billion as of June 30, 2017 and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.9 years.

All RSUs granted after December 31, 2016 vest on the satisfaction of only a service-based condition (“Post-2017 RSUs”). Total unrecognized compensation cost related to Post-2017 RSUs was $597.4 million as of June 30, 2017 and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 5.3 years. The service condition is generally satisfied over four years, 10% after the first year of service, 20% over the second year, 30% over the third year, and 40% over the fourth year. In limited instances, we have issued Post-2017 RSUs with vesting periods in excess of four years.

For the six months ended June 30, 2017, for RSUs issued to employees, we withheld 12.3 million shares of common stock (“net settlement”) and remitted $208.4 million in cash to meet the related tax withholding requirements on behalf of our employees. In July 2017, we withheld an additional 7.8 million shares of common stock and remitted approximately $105.0 million in cash to satisfy the related tax withholding requirements on behalf of our employees. We will continue to evaluate the net settlement of RSUs that vest in the future.

The table below presents stock option awards that entitle the holder to an additional share of Class A common stock on exercise. The total stock options granted and underlying common stock fair value do not give effect to the additional Class A common stock. The following table summarizes the stock option award activity under the Stock Plans during the six months ended June 30, 2017:

Class A

Number

of Shares

Class B

Number

of Shares

Weighted-

Average

Exercise

Price

Weighted-

Average

Remaining

Contractual

Term

(in years)

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value(1)

(in thousands, except per share data)

Outstanding at December 31, 2016

1,266

21,186

$

2.26

6.97

$

682,565

Granted

$

$

Exercised

(4

)

(2,700

)

$

0.29

$

Forfeited

$

$

Outstanding at June 30, 2017

1,262

18,486

$

2.53

6.47

$

651,879

Total unrecognized compensation cost related to stock options was $37.0 million as of June 30, 2017 and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.2 years.

Stock-Based Compensation Expense by Function

Total stock-based compensation expense by function is as follows:

Three Months Ended June 30,

Six Months Ended June 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

(in thousands)

Cost of revenue

$

2,223

$

128

$

21,931

$

282

Research and development

163,848

2,700

881,928

5,348

Sales and marketing

20,558

553

180,284

1,328

General and administrative

58,399

1,361

1,153,006

3,322

Total

$

245,028

$

4,742

$

2,237,149

$

10,280

2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan

In January 2017, our board of directors adopted the 2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“2017 ESPP”). Our stockholders approved the 2017 ESPP in February 2017. The 2017 ESPP became effective in connection with the IPO. A total of 16,484,690 shares of Class A common stock were initially reserved for issuance under the 2017 ESPP. No shares of our Class A common stock have been purchased under the 2017 ESPP. The number of shares of our Class A common stock reserved for issuance will automatically increase on January 1st of each calendar year, beginning on January 1, 2018 through January 1, 2027, by the lesser of (1) 1.0% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on the last day of the calendar month before the date of the automatic increase, and (2) 15,000,000 shares; provided that before the date of any such increase, our board of directors may determine that such increase will be less than the amount set forth in clauses (1) and (2).

4. Business Acquisitions

Zenly SAS

In May 2017, we acquired Zenly SAS, a company that develops a location-based social media application that allows users to see where their friends are on a map. The purpose of the acquisition was to enhance the functionality of our platform. The total consideration paid was $213.3 million in cash, of which $196.1 million represents purchase consideration and includes $186.8 million in cash paid to the sellers and $9.3 million of liabilities due to the sellers. The remaining $17.2 million of total consideration transferred represents compensation for future employment services. The allocation of purchase price is preliminary and is subject to additional information related to the liabilities that existed as of the acquisition date.

The preliminary allocation of the total purchase consideration for this acquisition is estimated as follows:

Total

(in thousands)

Cash

$

22,610

Technology

23,000

Goodwill

154,353

Net deferred tax liability

(2,418

)

Other assets acquired and liabilities assumed, net

(1,428

)

Total

$

196,117

The goodwill amount represents synergies related to our existing platform expected to be realized from this business combination and assembled workforce. The associated goodwill and intangible assets are not deductible for tax purposes.

Other Acquisitions

In June 2017, we acquired a component of a business from a social advertising software company that was integrated with our existing advertising platform and adds advertising tools and creative solutions to our advertising customers. In addition, in March 2017, we acquired all outstanding shares of a company that operates a cloud hosted platform for building content online. The company was acquired to enhance the functionality of our platform. The total purchase consideration for these acquisitions was $62.1 million, which included $60.2 million in cash and $1.9 million recorded in other liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.

The allocation of the total purchase consideration for the above acquisitions is as follows:

Total

(in thousands)

Technology

$

39,000

Customer relationships

500

Goodwill

24,135

Net deferred tax liability

(1,710

)

Other assets acquired and liabilities assumed, net

200

Total

$

62,125

The goodwill amount represents synergies related to our existing platform expected to be realized from these business combinations and assembled workforce. Of the technology intangible assets and goodwill in the above table, $30.5 million and $11.5 million is deductible for tax purposes, respectively.

Additional Information on 2017 Acquisitions

For all acquisitions in 2017, we provided for a combined $122.5 million in the form of RSUs to certain continuing employees of the companies in exchange for future service.

In addition, unaudited pro forma results of operations assuming the above acquisitions had taken place at the beginning of each period are not provided because the historical operating results of the acquired entities were not material and pro forma results would not be materially different from reported results for the periods presented.

5. Goodwill and Intangible Assets

The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill for the six months ended June 30, 2017 are as follows:

Goodwill

(in thousands)

Balance as of December 31, 2016

$

319,137

Goodwill acquired

178,488

Foreign currency translation

5,200

Balance as of June 30, 2017

$

502,825

Intangible assets consisted of the following:

June 30, 2017

Weighted-

Average

Remaining

Useful Life -

Years

Gross

Carrying

Amount

Accumulated

Amortization

Net

(in thousands except years)

Domain names

2.4

$

5,031

$

2,669

$

2,362

Trademarks

2.1

3,072

2,086

986

Acquired developed technology

5.0

146,041

29,587

116,454

Customer relationships

0.9

2,136

1,185

951

Patents

8.3

17,150

1,898

15,252

$

173,430

$

37,425

$

136,005

December 31, 2016

Weighted-

Average

Remaining

Useful Life -

Years

Gross

Carrying

Amount

Accumulated

Amortization

Net

(in thousands except years)

Domain names

3.0

$

5,000

$

2,157

$

2,843

Trademarks

2.6

3,072

1,829

1,243

Non-compete agreements

0.3

243

226

17

Acquired developed technology

4.1

83,137

20,569

62,568

Customer relationships

1.0

3,752

2,569

1,183

Patents

9.2

9,450

1,322

8,128

$

104,654

$

28,672

$

75,982

Amortization of intangible assets was $5.8 million and $3.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and $11.2 million and $6.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

As of June 30, 2017, the estimated intangible asset amortization expense for the next five years and thereafter is as follows:

Estimated

Amortization

(in thousands)

Remainder of 2017

$

15,758

2018

30,476

2019

27,435

2020

22,210

2021

16,597

Thereafter

23,529

Total

$

136,005

6. Commitments and Contingencies

Commitments

Leases

We entered into various non-cancelable lease agreements for certain of our offices with original lease periods expiring between 2017 and 2027. Certain of the arrangements have free rent periods or escalating rent payment provisions. We recognize rent expense under such arrangements on a straight-line basis.

Our future minimum lease payments required under these non-cancelable operating lease obligations as of June 30, 2017, are as follows:

Operating Leases

(in thousands)

Remainder of 2017

$

17,686

2018

45,200

2019

55,064

2020

55,486

2021

54,652

Thereafter

182,357

Total minimum lease payments

$

410,445

Operating lease expenses for the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016 were $11.8 and $5.7, respectively, and $24.7 million and $10.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

We have several lease agreements where we are deemed the owner under build-to-suit lease accounting. The fair value of the leased property and corresponding financing obligations are included in property and equipment, net and other liabilities, respectively, on our consolidated balance sheets as of June 30, 2017. Our future minimum lease payments required under non-cancelable financing lease obligations, which exclusively relate to our build-to-suit leases, as of June 30, 2017, are as follows:

Financing Leases

(in thousands)

Remainder of 2017

$

2,340

2018

4,726

2019

4,796

2020

4,947

2021

5,092

Thereafter

25,953

Total minimum lease payments

$

47,854

We recognize an increase in the fair value of the asset as additional building costs are incurred during the construction period and a corresponding increase in the lease financing obligation for any construction costs to be reimbursed by the landlord. As of June 30, 2017, $15.7 million of lease financing obligations are included in other liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets.

Contractual Commitments

We have non-cancelable contractual agreements related to the hosting of our data storage processing, storage, and other computing services.

In January 2017, we entered into the Google Cloud Platform License Agreement. Under the agreement, we were granted a license to access and use certain cloud services. The agreement has an initial term of five years and we are required to purchase at least $400.0 million of cloud services in each year of the agreement, though for each of the first four years, up to 15% of this amount may be moved to a subsequent year. If we fail to meet the minimum purchase commitment during any year, we are required to pay the difference.

In March 2016, we entered into the AWS Enterprise Agreement for the use of cloud services from Amazon Web Services, Inc. (“AWS”) that was amended in March 2016, and again in February 2017. Such agreement will continue indefinitely until terminated by either party. Under the February 2017 addendum to the agreement, we committed to spend $1.0 billion between January 2017 and December 2021 on AWS services ($50.0 million in 2017, $125.0 million in 2018, $200.0 million in 2019, $275.0 million in 2020, and $350.0 million in 2021). If we fail to meet the minimum purchase commitment during any year, we are required to pay the difference. Any such payment may be applied to future use of AWS services during the addendum term, although it will not count towards meeting the future minimum purchase commitments under the addendum.

18

We also have various other non-cancelable contractual commitments related to purchase agreements. Approximately $29.0 million of our other purchase commitments relate to hardware inventory commitments, consistent with our forecasted demand. Our assumptions of future demand for our products are inherently uncertain.

The future minimum contractual commitment including commitments less than one year, as of June 30, 2017 for each of the next five years are as follows:

Minimum Commitment

(in thousands)

Remainder of 2017

$

297,776

2018

537,901

2019

602,492

2020

675,000

2021

750,000

Thereafter

33,333

Total minimum commitments

$

2,896,502

Contingencies

We record a loss contingency when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. We also disclose material contingencies when we believe a loss is not probable but reasonably possible. Accounting for contingencies requires us to use judgment related to both the likelihood of a loss and the estimate of the amount or range of loss. Many legal and tax contingencies can take years to be resolved.

Pending Matters

In April 2016, an individual filed a lawsuit against us and another individual after he was injured in a car accident. The plaintiff alleges that we are liable because the other individual was supposedly using our “speed filter” at the time of the collision. In January 2017, the court dismissed the claim against us. This matter is currently on appeal.

Beginning in May 2017, we, certain of our officers and directors, and the underwriters for our IPO were named as defendants in securities class actions purportedly brought on behalf of purchasers of our Class A common stock, alleging violation of securities laws in connection with our IPO. Management believes these lawsuits are without merit and intend to vigorously defend them. Based on the preliminary nature of the proceedings in this case, the outcome of this matter remains uncertain.

The outcomes of our legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable, subject to significant uncertainties, and could be material to our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows for a particular period. For the pending matters described above, it is not possible to estimate the reasonably possible loss or range of loss.

We are subject to various other legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business, including certain patent, trademark, and privacy matters. Although occasional adverse decisions or settlements may occur, we do not believe that the final disposition of any of our other pending matters will seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Settlement

In September 2014, two individuals filed a lawsuit against us and our two founders in the Superior Court of California for Los Angeles County. The complaint alleged two causes of action—common-law right of publicity and statutory right of publicity—based on allegations that the defendants improperly used the plaintiffs’ images in promoting Snapchat for Android. In May 2017, the parties entered into a settlement agreement that resolved all claims among the parties. The settlement was not material. In June 2017, the parties filed a stipulation of dismissal with the court.

Indemnifications

In the ordinary course of business, we may provide indemnifications of varying scope and terms to customers, vendors, lessors, investors, directors, officers, employees, and other parties with respect to certain matters. Indemnification may

19

include losses from our breach of such agreements, services we provide, or third party intellectual property infringement claims. These indemnifications may survive termination of the underlying agreement and the maximum potential amount of future indemnification payments may not be subject to a cap. We have not incurred material costs to defend lawsuits or settle claims related to these indemnifications as of June 30, 2017. We believe the fair value of these liabilities is immaterial and accordingly have no liabilities recorded for these agreements at June 30, 2017.

7. Fair Value Measurements

We determine the fair value of our marketable securities using quoted market prices. The following table sets forth our financial assets as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis during the period:

Fair Value

June 30,

2017

December 31,

2016

(in thousands)

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash

$

163,285

$

150,121

U.S. government securities

220,506

U.S. government agency securities

117,886

Total cash and cash equivalents

$

501,677

$

150,121

Marketable securities

U.S. government securities

$

1,684,882

$

505,333

U.S. government agency securities

611,037

331,914

Total marketable securities

$

2,295,919

$

837,247

Gross unrealized gains and losses for cash equivalents and marketable securities as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 were not material. The amortized cost of U.S. government securities with maturities less than one year was $1.7 billion and $502.4 million as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. The amortized cost of U.S. government securities with maturities between one and five years was zero and $3.0 million as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. The amortized cost of U.S. government agency securities with maturities of less than a year was $593.2 million and $284.7 million as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. The amortized cost of U.S. government agency securities with maturities between one and five years was $17.9 million and $47.2 million as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively.

8. Income Taxes

Our tax provision for interim periods is determined using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate, adjusted for discrete items arising in that quarter. Our effective tax rate differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets as it is more likely than not that some or all of our deferred tax assets will not be realized.

Income taxes were an expense of $0.2 million and a benefit of $2.8 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively, as compared to a tax benefit of $0.03 million and an expense of $0.09 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, respectively. The income tax benefit for the six months ended June 30, 2017 was primarily from the partial release of a valuation allowance against our net deferred tax assets. The valuation allowance release was the result of net deferred tax liabilities originating from acquisitions that were an available source of income to realize a portion of our deferred tax assets.

9. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)

The table below presents the changes in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”) by component and the reclassifications out of AOCI:

Changes in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) by Component

Marketable

Securities

Foreign Currency

Translation

Total

(in thousands)

Balance at December 31, 2016

$

44

$

(2,101

)

$

(2,057

)

OCI before reclassifications (1)

(903

)

6,543

5,640

Amounts reclassified from AOCI (2)

7

7

Net current period OCI

(896

)

6,543

5,647

Balance at June 30, 2017

$

(852

)

$

4,442

$

3,590

10. Geographic Information

Revenue by geography is based on the billing address of the advertiser. The following tables list revenue and property and equipment, net by geographic area:

Three Months Ended June 30,

Six Months Ended June 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

(in thousands)

Revenue:

United States

$

145,661

$

63,389

$

269,421

$

99,053

Rest of the world (1)

36,010

8,409

61,898

11,543

Total revenue

$

181,671

$

71,798

$

331,319

$

110,596

As of

June 30, 2017

As of

December 31, 2016

(in thousands)

Property and equipment, net:

United States

$

110,932

$

98,254

Rest of the world (1)

17,099

2,331

Total property and equipment, net

$

128,031

$

100,585

11. Subsequent Events

In July 2017, we acquired an advertising measurement services company for $135.2 million in cash. The company was acquired to enhance advertising effectiveness. We are currently in the process of valuing the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction. Results of operations for the acquired company will be included in our consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition.

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our audited consolidated financial statements included in our prospectus dated March 1, 2017, or Prospectus, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act (File No. 333-215866).

Executive Overview of Second Quarter Results

Our key user metrics and financial results for the second quarter of 2017 are as follows:

User Metrics

Financial Results

Overview

Snap Inc. is a camera company.

We believe that reinventing the camera represents our greatest opportunity to improve the way that people live and communicate. Our products empower people to express themselves, live in the moment, learn about the world, and have fun together.

Our flagship product, Snapchat, is a camera application that was created to help people communicate through short videos and images. We call each of those short videos or images a Snap. On average, 173 million people use Snapchat daily, and over 3.0 billion Snaps are created every day. On average, our users visit Snapchat more than 20 times per day and spend over 30 minutes on Snapchat every day.

Trends in User Metrics

User Engagement

We define a Daily Active User as a registered Snapchat user who opens the Snapchat application at least once during a defined 24-hour period. We measure average Daily Active Users for a particular quarter by calculating the average Daily Active Users for that quarter. We also break out Daily Active Users by geography because certain markets have a greater revenue opportunity and lower bandwidth costs.

We averaged 173 million DAUs across the quarter, as compared to 143 million in the second quarter of 2016, an increase of 21%. The majority of that growth continues to be driven by core markets like North America and Europe.

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Quarterly Average Daily Active Users

Monetization

We monetize our business primarily through advertising. Our advertising products include Snap Ads and Sponsored Creative Tools like Sponsored Lenses and Sponsored Geofilters. While our advertising business is still in its early stages, it has grown rapidly. In the three months ended June 30, 2017, we recorded revenue of $181.7 million as compared to revenue of $71.8 million for the same period in 2016, representing a 153% year-over-year increase. In the six months ended June 30, 2017, we recorded revenue of $331.3 million as compared to revenue of $110.6 million for the same period in 2016, a 200% year-over-year increase.

We measure progress in our advertising business using ARPU because it helps us understand the rate at which we’re monetizing our daily user base. We define ARPU as quarterly revenue divided by the average Daily Active Users.

For purposes of calculating ARPU, revenue by user geography is apportioned to each region based on a determination of the geographic location in which advertising impressions are delivered, as this approximates revenue based on user activity. This differs from the presentation of our revenue by geography in the notes to our consolidated financial statements, where revenue is based on the billing address of the advertising customer.

Quarterly Average Revenue per User

ARPU was $1.05 in the second quarter of 2017, up from $0.50 a year ago and $0.90 in the first quarter of 2017. In North America, ARPU was $1.97, 88% higher than our global average. We believe North America remains a leading indicator for the scale potential of our business.

Results of Operations

The following table summarizes certain selected historical financial results:

Three Months Ended June 30,

Six Months Ended June 30,

2017

2016

2017

2016

(in thousands)

Revenue

$

181,671

$

71,798

$

331,319

$

110,596

Loss from operations

(449,018

)

(115,859

)

(2,662,785

)

(219,680

)

Net loss

(443,093

)

(115,894

)

(2,651,930

)

(220,470

)

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

(193,990

)

(105,121

)

(382,233

)

(198,355

)

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

We generate substantially all of our revenue through the sale of our advertising products, which include Snap Ads and Sponsored Creative Tools. We sell advertising directly to advertisers, referred to as Snap-sold revenue. Certain partners that provide content on Snapchat, or content partners, also sell directly to advertisers, referred to as partner-sold revenue. We report Snap-sold revenue on a gross basis and partner-sold revenue on a net basis. Currently, our Sponsored Creative Tools, which include Sponsored Lenses and Sponsored Geofilters, are only Snap-sold. For the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, approximately 93% and 88% of our advertising revenue was Snap-sold, respectively, and approximately 7% and 12% of our advertising revenue was partner-sold, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, approximately 93% and 89% of our advertising revenue was Snap-sold, respectively, while approximately 7% and 11% was partner-sold, respectively. Snap Ads, whether Snap-sold or partner-sold, may be subject to revenue sharing arrangements between us and the content partner.

We also generate revenue from sales of our hardware product, Spectacles. This revenue is reported net of allowances for returns.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists primarily of payments to third-party infrastructure partners for hosting our products. Hosting costs primarily include expenses related to bandwidth, computing, and storage costs. Cost of revenue also includes revenue share payments to our content partners, content creation costs, which include personnel-related costs, and advertising measurement services. In addition, cost of revenue includes inventory costs for Spectacles and facilities and other supporting overhead costs, including depreciation and...


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